Shinjō, Japan
Shinjō, Japan

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Hasunuma T.,Forestry and Fisheries Research Center | Uyeno Y.,Shinshu University | Akiyama K.,Kanagawa Prefectural Livestock Industry Technology Center | Hashimura S.,Kanagawa Prefectural Livestock Industry Technology Center | And 8 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2016

To determine changes in reticular pH during the pre- and postpartum periods, when subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) frequently occurs, we monitored pH in dairy cows up to 12 weeks postpartum using a radio transmission pH sensing system. We designated seven pregnant multiparous Holstein cows for continuous pH monitoring (pH monitoring test), resulting in successful data acquisition for reticular pH. We subsequently evaluated the cows to determine whether active dry yeast supplementation of their feed was effective for SARA prevention (yeast supplementation test). Twenty- nine pregnant cows were allocated to two groups (control [CON, n = 15] and yeast- supplemented [YEA, n = 14]) and fed a mixed ration optimized for dry prepartum cows and a mixed ration that consisted mainly of timothy hay and a commercial concentrate. The feed of the YEA group was supplemented with 10 g/day of commercial active yeast product for three weeks prepartum and twelve weeks postpartum. In the latter test, six cows in each group were selected for reticular pH recording using the pH monitoring system. The pH profiles in the pH monitoring test were relatively high compared to those in the yeast supplementation test throughout the testing period, probably due to differences in starch and fiber levels between experiments despite their identical formula design. Notably, regardless of yeast supplementation, 11 of 12 cows in the latter test exhibited similar trends of pH maintenance (6.5 < pH < 6.8) or gradual decrease during the dry period, whereas average daily reticular pH decreased dramatically after calving. Supplementing the diet of dairy cows with yeast during the transition period provided no significant change in the health and performance measurements of the animals. We demonstrated the application of a radio transmission pH sensing system for assessment and monitoring of the ruminal pH of cows in the transition period. Furthermore, our results imply that SARA incidence in the transition and early- to mid-lactation periods may be attributable to a reticuloruminal pH decrease during the dry period, which is difficult to overcome by means of yeast supplementation during the transition period. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Sato S.,Iwate University | Sato S.,Gifu University | Mizuguchi H.,DKK Toa Yamagata Co. | Ito K.,DKK Toa Yamagata Co. | And 4 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2012

An indwelling ruminal pH system has been used for the continuous recording of ruminal pH to evaluate subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in dairy cows. However this system does not allow the field application. The objective of this study was to develop a new radio transmission pH measurement system, and to assess its performance and usefulness in a continuous evaluation of ruminal pH for use on commercial dairy farms. The radio transmission pH measurement system consists of a wireless pH sensor, a data measurement receiver, a relay unit, and a personal computer installed special software. The pH sensor is housed in a bullet shaped bolus, which also encloses a pH amplifier circuit, a central processing unit (CPU) circuit, a radio frequency (RF) circuit, and a battery. The mean variations of the measurements by the glass pH electrode were +0.20 (n=10) after 2. months of continuous recording, compared to the values confirmed by standard pH solutions for pH 4 and pH 7 at the start of the recording. The mean lifetime of the internal battery was 2.5. months (n=10) when measurements were continuously transmitted every 10. min. Ruminal pH recorded by our new system was compared to that of the spot sampling of ruminal fluid. The mean pH for spot sampling was 6.36 ± 0.55 (n=96), and the mean pH of continuous recording was 6.22 ± 0.54 (n=96). There was a good correlation between continuous recording and spot sampling (r=0.986, P<0.01). We also examined whether our new pH system was able to detect experimentally induced ruminal acidosis in cows and to record long-term changes in ruminal pH. In the cows fed acidosis-inducing diets, the ruminal pH dropped markedly during the first 2. h following the morning feeding, and decreased moreover following the evening feeding, with many pulse-like pH changes. The pH of the cows showed the lowest values of 5.3-5.2 in the midnight time period and it recovered to the normal value by the next morning feeding. In one healthy periparturient cow, the circadian changes in ruminal pH were observed as a constant pattern in the pre-parturient period, however that pattern became variable in the post-partum period. The frequency of the ruminal pH lower than 5.5 increased markedly 3 and 4. days after parturition. We demonstrated the possible application of a radio transmission pH measurement system for the assessment and monitoring of the ruminal pH of cows. Our new system might contribute to accurate assessment and prevention of SARA. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Kimura A.,Gifu University | Sato S.,Gifu University | Sato S.,Iwate University | Kato T.,Iwate University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science | Year: 2012

To assess the relationship between pH and temperature in the ruminal bottom fluid, circadian changes were monitored using cows fed a control diet (C diet) or a rumen acidosis-inducing diet (RAI diet) by using a wireless radio-transmission pH- measurement system. These two parameters were measured simultaneously at 10-min intervals on day 14 after commencement of feeding. Compared to the mean ruminal pH for 60 min immediately after the morning feeding (0 hr), significantly lower pH was noted 3-13 hr later (P<0.05) and 4-19 hr later (P<0.01) in cows fed the C and RAI diets, respectively, although the reduction in the latter was much higher than that in the former. In contrast, significantly higher ruminal temperature was found at 8 and 12-14 hr later (P<0.05) and 6, 8, and 10-19 hr later (P<0.01) in cows fed the C and RAI diets, respectively. A significant negative correlation was observed between the lowest ruminal pH and its corresponding ruminal temperature in cows fed the C and RAI diets (r=-0.722 and -0.650, P<0.01, respectively), suggesting active fermentation and volatile fatty acid production in the rumen. However, ruminal pH profiles may not be predictable by measuring only ruminal temperature because decreases in ruminal pH were preceded by increases in ruminal temperature, and circadian changes in pH and temperature were associated with ruminal fermentation. © 2012 The Japanese Society of Veterinary Science.

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