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Ratuapli S.,Mayo Clinic Arizona | Mazlumzadeh M.,Divisions of Rheumatology | Gurudu S.,Mayo Clinic Arizona | Money S.,Divisions of Vascular Surgery | Heigh R.,Mayo Clinic Arizona
Case Reports in Gastroenterology | Year: 2010

Crohn's disease (CD) and Takayasu's arteritis (TA) are inflammatory granulomatous autoimmune disorders. Simultaneous occurrence of CD and TA in the same individual is rare. We report two cases treated with biologic agents. Case 1: A 16-year-old male presented with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting. CT angiogram showed thickening of the terminal ileum, wall thickening and narrowing of multiple large and medium arteries including aorta and left common carotid. Colonoscopy with biopsy of the stenotic ileocecal valve confirmed CD. Resected carotid artery pathology was consistent with TA. Treatment was initially begun with prednisone, then methotrexate was started followed by infliximab. Due to side effects, methotrexate was switched to azathioprine. He remained asymptomatic. Case 2: A 38-year-old male with well-characterized Crohn's ileocolitis for 15 years, who had been treated with prednisone, mesalamine, sulfasalazine, and azathioprine presented with chest, upper back and abdominal pain. CT angiogram showed vasculitis of large and medium arteries, with stenosis of the right renal artery, and wall thickening of the sigmoid colon. He was diagnosed with TA. He underwent treatment with infliximab and adalumimab on different occasions, which were later discontinued due to fever, bacteremia and complications from sepsis. He remained on prednisone and azathioprine. In these two patients with both CD and TA the diagnoses were confirmed by imaging and pathologic findings. Both patients developed vascular complications. Tumor necrosis factor inhibitor therapy was effective in one patient but discontinued in the other due to infection. Further research into the association of CD and TA may provide clues to their etiologies and guide effective interventions. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG. Source

Eriksson L.,Karolinska University Hospital | Saxelin R.,Divisions of Vascular Surgery | Rohl S.,Divisions of Vascular Surgery | Roy J.,Divisions of Vascular Surgery | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Vascular Research | Year: 2015

Diabetic patients have an increased risk of restenosis and late stent thrombosis after angioplasty, i.e. complications that are related to a defective re-endothelialization. Exendin-4, a stable glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor agonist, has been suggested to influence the formation of intimal hyperplasia and to increase endothelial cell proliferation in vitro. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which treatment with exendin-4 could influence re-endothelialization and intimal hyperplasia after vascular injury. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to balloon injury of the left common carotid artery and treated for 4 weeks with exendin-4 or vehicle. Intimal hyperplasia and vessel wall elasticity were monitored noninvasively by high-frequency ultrasound, and re-endothelialization was evaluated upon sacrifice using Evans blue dye. Results and Conclusion: Exendin-4 selectively reduced the proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and intimal hyperplasia in vivo without affecting the re-endothelialization process, but treatment with exendin-4 improved arterial wall elasticity. Our data also show that exendin-4 significantly decreased the proliferation and increased the apoptosis of SMCs in vitro, effects that appear to be mediated through cAMP signaling and endothelial nitric oxide synthase following GLP-1 receptor activation. Together, these effects of exendin-4 are highly desirable and may lead to an improved outcome for patients undergoing vascular interventions. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

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