Divisions of Newborn Medicine

of Newborn, United States

Divisions of Newborn Medicine

of Newborn, United States
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Cuaycong M.,Divisions of Newborn Medicine | Engel M.,New York Medical College | Weinstein S.L.,New York Medical College | Salmon E.,University of Kentucky | And 4 more authors.
Developmental Neuroscience | Year: 2011

Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a major cause of acute mortality and chronic neurologic morbidity in infants and children. HIE is the most common cause of neonatal seizures, and seizure activity in neonates can be clinical, with both EEG and behavioral symptoms, subclinical with only EEG activity, or just behavioral. The accurate detection of these different seizure manifestations and the extent to which they differ in their effects on the neonatal brain continues to be a concern in neonatal medicine. Most experimental studies of the interaction between hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and seizures have utilized a chemical induction of seizures, which may be less clinically relevant. Here, we expanded our model of unilateral cerebral HI in the immature rat to include video EEG and electromyographic recording before, during and after HI in term-equivalent postnatal-day-12 rats. We observed that immature rats display both clinical and subclinical seizures during the period of HI, and that the total number of seizures and time to first seizure correlate with the extent of tissue damage. We also tested the feasibility of developing an automated seizure detection algorithm for the unbiased detection and characterization of the different types of seizure activity observed in this model. © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Tropea K.A.,Divisions of Newborn Medicine | Leder E.,Harvard University | Aslam M.,Divisions of Newborn Medicine | Lau A.N.,Harvard Stem Cell Institute | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology | Year: 2012

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains a major complication of prematurity resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. The pathology of BPD is multifactorial and leads to alveolar simplification and distal lung injury. Previous studies have shown a beneficial effect of systemic treatment with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and MSC-conditioned media (MSC-CM) leading to amelioration of the lung parenchymal and vascular injury in vivo in the hyperoxia murine model of BPD. It is possible that the beneficial response from the MSCs is at least in part due to activation of endogenous lung epithelial stem cells. Bronchioalveolar stem cells (BASCs) are an adult lung stem cell population capable of selfrenewal and differentiation in culture, and BASCs proliferate in response to bronchiolar and alveolar lung injury in vivo. Systemic treatment of neonatal hyperoxia-exposed mice with MSCs or MSC-CM led to a significant increase in BASCs compared with untreated controls. Treatment of BASCs with MSC-CM in culture showed an increase in growth efficiency, indicating a direct effect of MSCs on BASCs. Lineage tracing data in bleomycin-treated adult mice showed that Clara cell secretory protein-expressing cells including BASCs are capable of contributing to alveolar repair after lung injury. MSCs and MSC-derived factors may stimulate BASCs to play a role in the repair of alveolar lung injury found in BPD and in the restoration of distal lung cell epithelia. This work highlights the potential important role of endogenous lung stem cells in the repair of chronic lung diseases. © 2012 the American Physiological Society.

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