Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention

Heart, United States

Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention

Heart, United States

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Cogswell M.E.,Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention | Yuan K.,Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention | Gunn J.P.,Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention | Gillespie C.,Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention | And 9 more authors.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report | Year: 2014

Background: A national health objective is to reduce average U.S. sodium intake to 2,300 mg daily to help prevent high blood pressure, a major cause of heart disease and stroke. Identifying common contributors to sodium intake among children can help reduction efforts.Methods: Average sodium intake, sodium consumed per calorie, and proportions of sodium from food categories, place obtained, and eating occasion were estimated among 2,266 school-aged (6–18 years) participants in What We Eat in America, the dietary intake component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2010.Results: U.S. school-aged children consumed an estimated 3,279 mg of sodium daily with the highest total intake (3,672 mg/d) and intake per 1,000 kcal (1,681 mg) among high school–aged children. Forty-three percent of sodium came from 10 food categories: pizza, bread and rolls, cold cuts/cured meats, savory snacks, sandwiches, cheese, chicken patties/nuggets/tenders, pasta mixed dishes, Mexican mixed dishes, and soups. Sixty-five percent of sodium intake came from store foods, 13% from fast food/pizza restaurants, 5% from other restaurants, and 9% from school cafeteria foods. Among children aged 14–18 years, 16% of total sodium intake came from fast food/pizza restaurants versus 11% among those aged 6–10 years or 11–13 years (p<0.05). Among children who consumed a school meal on the day assessed, 26% of sodium intake came from school cafeteria foods. Thirty-nine percent of sodium was consumed at dinner, followed by lunch (29%), snacks (16%), and breakfast (15%).Implications for Public Health Practice: Sodium intake among school-aged children is much higher than recommended. Multiple food categories, venues, meals, and snacks contribute to sodium intake among school-aged children supporting the importance of populationwide strategies to reduce sodium intake. New national nutrition standards are projected to reduce the sodium content of school meals by approximately 25%–50% by 2022. Based on this analysis, if there is no replacement from other sources, sodium intake among U.S. school-aged children will be reduced by an average of about 75–150 mg per day and about 220–440 mg on days children consume school meals. © 2014, Department of Health and Human Services. All right reserved.


Wang C.-Y.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Cogswell E.M.,Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention | Loria M.C.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Chen T.-C.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

Because of the logistic complexity, excessive respondent burden, and high cost of conducting 24-h urine collections in a national survey, alternative strategies to monitor sodium intake at the population level need to be evaluated. We conducted a calibration study to assess the ability to characterize sodium intake from timed-spot urine samples calibrated to a 24-h urine collection. In this report, we described the overall design and basic results of the study. Adults aged 18-39 y were recruited to collect urine for a 24-h period, placing each void in a separate container. Four timed-spot specimens (morning, afternoon, evening, and overnight) and the 24-h collection were analyzed for sodium, potassium, chloride, creatinine, and iodine. Of 481 eligible persons, 407 (54% female, 48% black) completed a 24-h urine collection. A subsample (n = 133) collected a second 24-h urine 4-11 d later. Mean sodium excretion was 3.54 ± 1.51 g/d for males and 3.09 ± 1.26 g/d for females. Sensitivity analysis excluding those who did not meet the expected creatinine excretion criterion showed the same results. Day-to-day variability for sodium, potassium, chloride, and iodine was observed among those collecting two 24-h urine samples (CV = 16-29% for 24-h urine samples and 21-41% for timed-spot specimens). Among all race-gender groups, overnight specimens had larger volumes (P ≪ 0.01) and lower sodium (P ≪ 0.01 to P = 0.26), potassium (P ≪ 0.01), and chloride (P ≪ 0.01) concentrations compared with other timed-spot urine samples, although the differences were not always significant. Urine creatinine and iodine concentrations did not differ by the timing of collection. The observed day-to-day and diurnal variations in sodium excretion illustrate the importance of accounting for these factors when developing calibration equations from this study. © 2013 American Society for Nutrition.


News Article | November 3, 2016
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

Cardiovascular disease, including heart disease and stroke, kills more than 800,000 Americans each year. We know that too much salt may contribute to high blood pressure and increased cardiovascular risk. According to a new study in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, American children are consuming sodium at levels that far exceed the daily recommended limit. Taste preferences for high sodium foods, formed as children, follow individuals into adulthood and put them at increased risk for developing cardiovascular problems later in life. "Sodium reduction is considered a key public health strategy to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases nationwide and this study is the latest in ongoing CDC efforts to monitor U.S. sodium intake," explained lead author Zerleen S. Quader, MPH, a data analyst with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention. "We already know that nearly all Americans regardless of age, race, and gender consume more sodium than is recommended for a healthy diet and the excess intake is of great concern among particular youths." Using data from the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC researchers looked at the eating habits of 2,142 children between the ages of 6 and 18 years. They found that the average sodium intake for kids was 3,256 milligrams per day, not including any salt added at the table. The recommended intake for children varies from 1,900 mg/day to 2,300 mg/day depending on age. Nearly 90% of the children surveyed exceeded the upper level of sodium recommended for their age group and previous evidence suggests that one in nine children ages 8-17 years already has blood pressure above the normal range for their age, sex, and height, which increases their risk of high blood pressure as adults. The study also found that high levels of sodium were being consumed throughout the day and from a variety of different sources. For example, they found 39% of sodium was consumed at dinner, 31% came from lunch, 16% from snacks, and 14% at breakfast. Researchers discovered that only 10 types of food made up almost 50% of kids' sodium intake. These included pizza, Mexican mixed dishes, sandwiches (including burgers), breads, cold cuts, soups, savory snacks, cheese, plain milk, and poultry. Looking at where sodium-laden foods were purchased, researchers found that foods from the grocery store accounted for a substantial 58% of daily sodium intake, while fast-food/pizza contributed 16%, and the school cafeteria 10%. "With the exception of plain milk, which naturally contains sodium, the top ten food categories contributing to U.S. school children's sodium intake in 2011-2012 comprised foods in which sodium is added during processing or preparation," said Quader. "Sodium is consumed throughout the day from multiple foods and locations, highlighting the importance of sodium reduction across the U.S. food supply." While sodium intake exceeded daily recommended levels across the board, the study found that average levels were even higher for teens ages 14-18 years (3,565 mg/day vs. 3,256 mg/day for all ages) and that girls had significantly lower daily intake than boys (2,919 mg/day for girls vs. 3,584 mg/day for boys); however, no significant differences in mean sodium intake were observed by race/ethnic group, household income, or child weight status. This new study illustrates why identifying targets for sodium intervention can be tricky, since salt is ubiquitous in children's diets. It's also hard to pinpoint problem foods, since the sodium content of dishes can vary significantly according to how they are made and prepared. "It's surprising how much sodium content for the same food type can vary by product," described Quader. "The best way to reduce sodium intake from these products is to check the Nutrition Facts panel on packages and look for no-salt-added or lower-sodium versions." The investigators have identified some important tips for parents and caregivers looking to help cut down sodium in kids' diets: · Feed your children a diet rich in fresh fruits and vegetables without added sodium or sauces. · Read nutrition labels. When shopping at the grocery store, look for the lowest sodium options for your child's favorite foods. An easy way to assess sodium in a food is to focus on the amount of sodium per serving. Those foods with less than 140 mg per serving are considered low in sodium. · Request nutritional information at restaurants to find healthier options. Speak with your local grocer about stocking lower-sodium versions of foods. While more attention is being paid to fostering good food habits early, salt could prove to be a challenging opponent. Researchers hope that this study can serve as a benchmark as more measures are put into place to reduce the amount of sodium kids consume. "The results support the need to reduce sodium content across the U.S. food supply rather than in a single type of food or venue," concluded Quader. "These data provide baseline information on sources of sodium intake among U.S. school-aged children that can be used to monitor changes in the food supply over time." For more information on the role sodium plays in heart health, please visit http://www.cdc.gov/salt. For heart-healthy, low-sodium recipes and other eating tips, visit the Million Hearts Healthy Eating and Lifestyle Resource Center at http://www.recipes.millionhearts.hhs.gov.


News Article | November 3, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

High sodium intake from a variety of foods makes children vulnerable to heart disease later in life, according to a new report from investigators at CDC published in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Philadelphia, PA, November 3, 2016 - Cardiovascular disease, including heart disease and stroke, kills more than 800,000 Americans each year. We know that too much salt may contribute to high blood pressure and increased cardiovascular risk. According to a new study in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, American children are consuming sodium at levels that far exceed the daily recommended limit. Taste preferences for high sodium foods, formed as children, follow individuals into adulthood and put them at increased risk for developing cardiovascular problems later in life. "Sodium reduction is considered a key public health strategy to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases nationwide and this study is the latest in ongoing CDC efforts to monitor U.S. sodium intake," explained lead author Zerleen S. Quader, MPH, a data analyst with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention. "We already know that nearly all Americans regardless of age, race, and gender consume more sodium than is recommended for a healthy diet and the excess intake is of great concern among particular youths." Using data from the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC researchers looked at the eating habits of 2,142 children between the ages of 6 and 18 years. They found that the average sodium intake for kids was 3,256 milligrams per day, not including any salt added at the table. The recommended intake for children varies from 1,900 mg/day to 2,300 mg/day depending on age. Nearly 90% of the children surveyed exceeded the upper level of sodium recommended for their age group and previous evidence suggests that one in nine children ages 8-17 years already has blood pressure above the normal range for their age, sex, and height, which increases their risk of high blood pressure as adults. The study also found that high levels of sodium were being consumed throughout the day and from a variety of different sources. For example, they found 39% of sodium was consumed at dinner, 31% came from lunch, 16% from snacks, and 14% at breakfast. Researchers discovered that only 10 types of food made up almost 50% of kids' sodium intake. These included pizza, Mexican mixed dishes, sandwiches (including burgers), breads, cold cuts, soups, savory snacks, cheese, plain milk, and poultry. Looking at where sodium-laden foods were purchased, researchers found that foods from the grocery store accounted for a substantial 58% of daily sodium intake, while fast-food/pizza contributed 16%, and the school cafeteria 10%. "With the exception of plain milk, which naturally contains sodium, the top ten food categories contributing to U.S. school children's sodium intake in 2011-2012 comprised foods in which sodium is added during processing or preparation," said Quader. "Sodium is consumed throughout the day from multiple foods and locations, highlighting the importance of sodium reduction across the U.S. food supply." While sodium intake exceeded daily recommended levels across the board, the study found that average levels were even higher for teens ages 14-18 years (3,565 mg/day vs. 3,256 mg/day for all ages) and that girls had significantly lower daily intake than boys (2,919 mg/day for girls vs. 3,584 mg/day for boys); however, no significant differences in mean sodium intake were observed by race/ethnic group, household income, or child weight status. This new study illustrates why identifying targets for sodium intervention can be tricky, since salt is ubiquitous in children's diets. It's also hard to pinpoint problem foods, since the sodium content of dishes can vary significantly according to how they are made and prepared. "It's surprising how much sodium content for the same food type can vary by product," described Quader. "The best way to reduce sodium intake from these products is to check the Nutrition Facts panel on packages and look for no-salt-added or lower-sodium versions." The investigators have identified some important tips for parents and caregivers looking to help cut down sodium in kids' diets: While more attention is being paid to fostering good food habits early, salt could prove to be a challenging opponent. Researchers hope that this study can serve as a benchmark as more measures are put into place to reduce the amount of sodium kids consume. "The results support the need to reduce sodium content across the U.S. food supply rather than in a single type of food or venue," concluded Quader. "These data provide baseline information on sources of sodium intake among U.S. school-aged children that can be used to monitor changes in the food supply over time." For more information on the role sodium plays in heart health, please visit http://www. . For heart-healthy, low-sodium recipes and other eating tips, visit the Million Hearts Healthy Eating and Lifestyle Resource Center at http://www. .

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