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Castillo A.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture | Ramirez M.C.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture | Martin A.C.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture | Kilian A.,Diversity Arrays Technology Pty. Ltd | And 2 more authors.
BMC Plant Biology

Background: Hordeum chilense, a native South American diploid wild barley, is one of the species of the genus Hordeum with a high potential for cereal breeding purposes, given its high crossability with other members of the Triticeae tribe. Hexaploid tritordeum (×Tritordeum Ascherson et Graebner, 2n=6×=42, AABBHchHch) is the fertile amphiploid obtained after chromosome doubling of hybrids between Hordeum chilense and durum wheat. Approaches used in the improvement of this crop have included crosses with hexaploid wheat to promote D/Hch chromosome substitutions. While this approach has been successful as was the case with triticale, it has also complicated the genetic composition of the breeding materials. Until now tritordeum lines were analyzed based on molecular cytogenetic techniques and screening with a small set of DNA markers. However, the recent development of DArT markers in H. chilense offers new possibilities to screen large number of accessions more efficiently.Results: Here, we have applied DArT markers to genotype composition in forty-six accessions of hexaploid tritordeum originating from different stages of tritordeum breeding program and to H. chilense-wheat chromosome addition lines to allow their physical mapping. Diversity analyses were conducted including dendrogram construction, principal component analysis and structure inference. Euploid and substituted tritordeums were clearly discriminated independently of the method used. However, dendrogram and Structure analyses allowed the clearest discrimination among substituted tritordeums. The physically mapped markers allowed identifying these groups as substituted tritordeums carrying the following disomic substitutions (DS): DS1D (1Hch), DS2D (2Hch), DS5D (5Hch), DS6D (6Hch) and the double substitution DS2D (2Hch), DS5D (5Hch). These results were validated using chromosome specific EST and SSR markers and GISH analysis.Conclusion: In conclusion, DArT markers have proved to be very useful to detect chromosome substitutions in the tritordeum breeding program and thus they are expected to be equally useful to detect translocations both in the tritordeum breeding program and in the transference of H. chilense genetic material in wheat breeding programs. © 2013 Castillo et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Zheng Z.,CSIRO | Zheng Z.,University of Western Australia | Zheng Z.,Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | Kilian A.,Diversity Arrays Technology Pty. Ltd | And 3 more authors.

Fusarium crown rot (FCR) is one of the most damaging cereal diseases in semi-arid regions worldwide. The genetics of FCR resistance in the bread wheat (Triticum eastivum L.) variety EGA Wylie, the most resistant commercial variety available, was studied by QTL mapping. Three populations of recombinant inbred lines were developed with this elite variety as the resistant parent. Four QTL conferring FCR resistance were detected and resistance alleles of all of them were derived from the resistant parent EGA Wylie. One of these loci was located on the short arm of chromosome 5D (designated as Qcrs.cpi- 5D). This QTL explains up to 31.1% of the phenotypic variance with an LOD value of 9.6. The second locus was located on the long arm of chromosome 2D (designated as Qcrs.cpi-2D) and explained up to 20.2% of the phenotypic variance with an LOD value of 4.5. Significant effects of both Qcrs.cpi-5D and Qcrs.cpi-2D were detected in each of the three populations assessed. Another two QTL (designated as Qcrs.cpi-4B.1 and Qcrs.cpi-4B.2 , respectively) were located on the short arm of chromosome 4B. These two QTL explained up to 16.9% and 18.8% of phenotypic variance, respectively. However, significant effects of Qcrs.cpi-4B.1 and Qcrs.cpi-4B.2 were not detected when the effects of plant height was accounted for by covariance analysis. The elite characteristics of this commercial variety should facilitate the incorporation of the resistance loci it contains into breeding programs. © 2014 Zheng et al. Source

Cruz V.M.V.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Cruz V.M.V.,Colorado State University | Kilian A.,Diversity Arrays Technology Pty. Ltd | Dierig D.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture

The advantages of using molecular markers in modern genebanks are well documented. They are commonly used to understand the distribution of genetic diversity in populations and among species which is crucial for efficient management and effective utilization of germplasm collections. We describe the development of two types of DArT molecular marker platforms for the new oilseed crop lesquerella (Physaria spp.), a member of the Brassicaceae family, to characterize a collection in the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) with relatively little known in regards to the genetic diversity and traits. The two types of platforms were developed using a subset of the germplasm conserved ex situ consisting of 87 Physaria and 2 Paysonia accessions. The microarray DArT revealed a total of 2,833 polymorphic markers with an average genotype call rate of 98.4% and a scoring reproducibility of 99.7%. On the other hand, the DArTseq platform developed for SNP and DArT markers from short sequence reads showed a total of 27,748 high quality markers. Cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis indicated that the different accessions were successfully classified by both systems based on species, by geographical source, and breeding status. In the germplasm set analyzed, which represented more than 80% of the P. fendleri collection, we observed that a substantial amount of variation exists in the species collection. These markers will be valuable in germplasm management studies and lesquerella breeding, and augment the microsatellite markers previously developed on the taxa. Source

Kroc M.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Koczyk G.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Swiecicki W.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Kilian A.,Diversity Arrays Technology Pty. Ltd | Nelson M.N.,University of Western Australia
Theoretical and Applied Genetics

Key message This is the first clear evidence of duplication and/or triplication of large chromosomal regions in a genome of a Genistoid legume, the most basal clade of Papilionoid legumes. Lupinus angustifolius L. (narrow-leafed lupin) is the most widely cultivated species of Genistoid legume, grown for its high-protein grain. As a member of this most basal clade of Papilionoid legumes, L. angustifolius serves as a useful model for exploring legume genome evolution. Here, we report an improved reference genetic map of L. angustifolius comprising 1207 loci, including 299 newly developed Diversity Arrays Technology markers and 54 new gene-based PCR markers. A comparison between the L. angustifolius and Medicago truncatula genomes was performed using 394 sequence-tagged site markers acting as bridging points between the two genomes. The improved L. angustifolius genetic map, the updated M. truncatula genome assembly and the increased number of bridging points between the genomes together substantially enhanced the resolution of synteny and chromosomal colinearity between these genomes compared to previous reports. While a high degree of syntenic fragmentation was observed that was consistent with the large evolutionary distance between the L. angustifolius and M. truncatula genomes, there were striking examples of conserved colinearity of loci between these genomes. Compelling evidence was found of large-scale duplication and/or triplication in the L. angustifolius genome, consistent with one or more ancestral polyploidy events. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Emma Huang B.,CSIRO | Cavanagh C.,CSIRO | Rampling L.,CSIRO | Kilian A.,Diversity Arrays Technology Pty. Ltd | George A.W.,CSIRO
Molecular Breeding

For many years, genetic markers have been the building blocks in assembling genomic knowledge. Improved technology and methods for collecting marker data have increased accuracy, increased throughput, and reduced cost. However, common genotyping technology still produces far fewer markers in plant species than in animals and humans. We propose a new type of genetic marker based on the Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) genotyping system for organisms lacking a reference genetic sequence. These markers are based directly on microarray probe intensity profiles and hence are called iDArTs. They require no additional genotyping beyond screening with a DArT array. Since standard methods of genetic analysis cannot be used with these continuous markers, we develop novel methods for the common bi-parental experimental designs doubled haploids, recombinant inbred lines, and backcrosses. These enable the augmentation of genetic maps with iDArTs and permit quantitative trait locus mapping with both discrete and continuous markers. We use simulation to demonstrate the power of this approach for marker mapping. In addition, we construct maps and perform linkage analysis for these DArT genotypes using the doubled haploid progeny lines from a cross between the wheat cultivars Chara and Glenlea. These methods allow access to a previously untapped genetic resource by extracting additional information from the raw data. With no additional genotyping cost, we are able to double the number of markers mapped and thereby increase genome coverage. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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