Yarralumla, Australia
Yarralumla, Australia

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Huang B.E.,CSIRO | George A.W.,CSIRO | Forrest K.L.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | Kilian A.,Diversity Arrays Technology | And 3 more authors.
Plant Biotechnology Journal | Year: 2012

We present the first results from a novel multiparent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) population derived from four elite wheat cultivars. The large size of this MAGIC population (1579 progeny), its diverse genetic composition and high levels of recombination all contribute to its value as a genetic resource. Applications of this resource include interrogation of the wheat genome and the analysis of gene-trait association in agronomically important wheat phenotypes. Here, we report the utilization of a MAGIC population for the first time for linkage map construction. We have constructed a linkage map with 1162 DArT, single nucleotide polymorphism and simple sequence repeat markers distributed across all 21 chromosomes. We benchmark this map against a high-density DArT consensus map created by integrating more than 100 biparental populations. The linkage map forms the basis for further exploration of the genetic architecture within the population, including characterization of linkage disequilibrium, founder contribution and inclusion of an alien introgression into the genetic map. Finally, we demonstrate the application of the resource for quantitative trait loci mapping using the complex traits plant height and hectolitre weight as a proof of principle. © 2012 CSIRO. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Schouten H.J.,Wageningen University | van de Weg W.E.,Wageningen University | Carling J.,Diversity Arrays Technology | Khan S.A.,Wageningen University | And 12 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2012

Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) provides a high-throughput whole-genome genotyping platform for the detection and scoring of hundreds of polymorphic loci without any need for prior sequence information. The work presented here details the development and performance of a DArT genotyping array for apple. This is the first paper on DArT in horticultural trees. Genetic mapping of DArT markers in two mapping populations and their integration with other marker types showed that DArT is a powerful high-throughput method for obtaining accurate and reproducible marker data, despite the low cost per data point. This method appears to be suitable for aligning the genetic maps of different segregating populations. The standard complexity reduction method, based on the methylation-sensitive PstI restriction enzyme, resulted in a high frequency of markers, although there was 52-54% redundancy due to the repeated sampling of highly similar sequences. Sequencing of the marker clones showed that they are significantly enriched for low-copy, genic regions. The genome coverage using the standard method was 55-76%. For improved genome coverage, an alternative complexity reduction method was examined, which resulted in less redundancy and additional segregating markers. The DArT markers proved to be of high quality and were very suitable for genetic mapping at low cost for the apple, providing moderate genome coverage. © 2011 The Author(s).


Emeriewen O.,Research and Innovation Center | Malnoy M.,Research and Innovation Center | Kilian A.,Diversity Arrays Technology | Richter K.,Julius Kuhn Institute | And 2 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Fire blight is a common and very destructive disease affecting apple (Malus xdomestica) and pear (Pyrus communis) productions. Caused by enterobacterium Erwinia amylovora, its devastating economic effects ranges from losses in yield to severe damage or death of trees in the orchard, and in extreme cases loss of a whole orchard. The most effective management measure available to producers is the use of antibiotics. However, dependence on antibiotics treatment is not sustainable given risks such as the rapid selection of antibiotic-resistant Erwinia populations and environmental hazards, which have led to their application being forbidden in many countries. Therefore the planting of fire blight-resistant cultivars seems to be the most promising alternative strategy. However until now, there is no fire blightresistant apple cultivar produced for the global market. Host resistance to fire blight in Malus is thought to be quantitatively controlled. Thus, several quantitative trait loci for resistance have been identified in some accessions of Malus spp. In this study, we explored a segregating population derived from a cross between the apple wild species Malus fusca and the Malus xdomestica cultivar 'Idared'. F1 progenies used for mapping were artificially inoculated with E. amylovora strain Ea222 at a concentration of 109 CFU/ml in two different years. The averages of percentage lesion length (PLL) of all replicates of each genotype were used as numerical traits for statistical analysis. A Kruskal-Wallis analysis, used to determine marker-phenotype association, revealed two DArT markers (971000 and 970840) with the highest significance. QTL mapping revealed a strong QTL explaining above 60% of the phenotypic variation. This is the first report of a fire blight resistance QTL in M. fusca. © 2014, International Society for Horticultural Science. All rights reserved.


D'hont A.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Denoeud F.,French Atomic Energy Commission | Denoeud F.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Denoeud F.,DeVry University | And 70 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2012

Bananas (Musa spp.), including dessert and cooking types, are giant perennial monocotyledonous herbs of the order Zingiberales, a sister group to the well-studied Poales, which include cereals. Bananas are vital for food security in many tropical and subtropical countries and the most popular fruit in industrialized countries. The Musa domestication process started some 7,000 years ago in Southeast Asia. It involved hybridizations between diverse species and subspecies, fostered by human migrations, and selection of diploid and triploid seedless, parthenocarpic hybrids thereafter widely dispersed by vegetative propagation. Half of the current production relies on somaclones derived from a single triploid genotype (Cavendish). Pests and diseases have gradually become adapted, representing an imminent danger for global banana production. Here we describe the draft sequence of the 523-megabase genome of a Musa acuminata doubled-haploid genotype, providing a crucial stepping-stone for genetic improvement of banana. We detected three rounds of whole-genome duplications in the Musa lineage, independently of those previously described in the Poales lineage and the one we detected in the Arecales lineage. This first monocotyledon high-continuity whole-genome sequence reported outside Poales represents an essential bridge for comparative genome analysis in plants. As such, it clarifies commelinid-monocotyledon phylogenetic relationships, reveals Poaceae-specific features and has led to the discovery of conserved non-coding sequences predating monocotyledon-eudicotyledon divergence. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Kopecky D.,Institute of Experimental Botany | Bartos J.,Institute of Experimental Botany | Christelova P.,Institute of Experimental Botany | Cernoch V.,R.Ø.S.A. | And 2 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2011

Complementary attributes of Festuca and Lolium grasses can be combined in hybrid cultivars called Festuloliums, which are becoming increasingly popular fodder crops and amenity plants. Genomic constitution of commercially available Festuloliums was reported to vary from almost equal representation of parental genomes to apparent lack of one of them based on molecular cytogenetic analyses and screening with a small set of DNA markers, both approaches with limited resolution. Here, we describe the use of the DArTFest array comprising 3,884 polymorphic DArT markers for characterization of genomes in five Festulolium cultivars. In any of the cultivars, the minimum number of informative markers, which discriminated the parental Lolium and Festuca genomes was 361 and 171, respectively. Using the DArTFest array, it was possible to determine hybrid genome constitution at resolution which has never been achieved before and the analysis of a set of randomly selected plants from each cultivar provided information on genetic structure of outcrossing Festulolium cultivars. In addition to a core set of markers typical for each hybrid cultivar, markers occurring at low frequency among the plants within each cultivar were identified. Biological significance of genomic loci associated with the rare markers is yet to be determined. Finally, with the aim to simplify the use of DArTFest arrays to characterize Festuca × Lolium hybrids, various bulking strategies were compared. While all bulks were suitable for identification of hybrids, only bulks of few plants have been found to reveal the rare markers. © Springer-Verlag 2010.


Martin G.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Baurens F.-C.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Droc G.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Rouard M.,Bioversity International | And 8 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2016

Background: Recent advances in genomics indicate functional significance of a majority of genome sequences and their long range interactions. As a detailed examination of genome organization and function requires very high quality genome sequence, the objective of this study was to improve reference genome assembly of banana (Musa acuminata). Results: We have developed a modular bioinformatics pipeline to improve genome sequence assemblies, which can handle various types of data. The pipeline comprises several semi-automated tools. However, unlike classical automated tools that are based on global parameters, the semi-automated tools proposed an expert mode for a user who can decide on suggested improvements through local compromises. The pipeline was used to improve the draft genome sequence of Musa acuminata. Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) of a segregating population and paired-end sequencing were used to detect and correct scaffold misassemblies. Long insert size paired-end reads identified scaffold junctions and fusions missed by automated assembly methods. GBS markers were used to anchor scaffolds to pseudo-molecules with a new bioinformatics approach that avoids the tedious step of marker ordering during genetic map construction. Furthermore, a genome map was constructed and used to assemble scaffolds into super scaffolds. Finally, a consensus gene annotation was projected on the new assembly from two pre-existing annotations. This approach reduced the total Musa scaffold number from 7513 to 1532 (i.e. by 80%), with an N50 that increased from 1.3 Mb (65 scaffolds) to 3.0 Mb (26 scaffolds). 89.5% of the assembly was anchored to the 11 Musa chromosomes compared to the previous 70%. Unknown sites (N) were reduced from 17.3 to 10.0%. Conclusion: The release of the Musa acuminata reference genome version 2 provides a platform for detailed analysis of banana genome variation, function and evolution. Bioinformatics tools developed in this work can be used to improve genome sequence assemblies in other species. © 2016 Martin et al.


Tyrka M.,Rzeszow University of Technology | Bednarek P.T.,Polish Institute of Plant Breeding and Acclimatization | Kilian A.,Diversity Arrays Technology | Wedzony M.,Polish Academy of Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Genome | Year: 2011

A set of 90 doubled haploid (DH) lines derived from F 1 plants that originated from a cross between à - Triticosecale Wittm. 'Saka3006' and à - Triticosecale Wittm. 'Modus', via wide crossing with maize, were used to create a genetic linkage map of triticale. The map has 21 linkage groups assigned to the A, B, and R genomes including 155 simple sequence repeat (SSR), 1385 diversity array technology (DArT), and 28 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers covering 2397 cM with a mean distance between two markers of 4.1 cM. Comparative analysis with wheat consensus maps revealed that triticale chromosomes of the A and B genomes were represented by 15 chromosomes, including combinations of 2AS.2AL#, 2AL#2BL, 6AS.6AL#, and 2BS.6AL# instead of 2A, 2B, and 6A. In respect to published maps of rye, substantial rearrangements were found also for chromosomes 1R, 2R, and 3R of the rye genome. Chromosomes 1R and 2R were truncated and the latter was linked with 3R. A nonhomogeneous distribution of markers across the triticale genome was observed with evident bias (48%) towards the rye genome. This genetic map may serve as a reference linkage map of triticale for efficient studies of structural rearrangements, gene mapping, and marker-assisted selection. © 2011 Published by NRC Research Press.


Oliver R.E.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Jellen E.N.,Brigham Young University | Ladizinsky G.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Korol A.B.,Haifa University | And 12 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2011

Nutritional benefits of cultivated oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42, AACCDD) are well recognized; however, seed protein levels are modest and resources for genetic improvement are scarce. The wild tetraploid, A. magna Murphy et Terrell (syn A. maroccana Gdgr., 2n = 4x = 28, CCDD), which contains approximately 31% seed protein, was hybridized with cultivated oat to produce a domesticated A. magna. Wild and cultivated accessions were crossed to generate a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Although these materials could be used to develop domesticated, high-protein oat, mapping and quantitative trait loci introgression is hindered by a near absence of genetic markers. Objectives of this study were to develop high-throughput, A. magna-specific markers; generate a genetic linkage map based on the A. magna RIL population; and map genes controlling oat domestication. A Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) array derived from 10 A. magna genotypes was used to generate 2,688 genome-specific probes. These, with 12,672 additional oat clones, produced 2,349 polymorphic markers, including 498 (21. 2%) from A. magna arrays and 1,851 (78. 8%) from other Avena libraries. Linkage analysis included 974 DArT markers, 26 microsatellites, 13 SNPs, and 4 phenotypic markers, and resulted in a 14-linkage-group map. Marker-to-marker correlation coefficient analysis allowed classification of shared markers as unique or redundant, and putative linkage-group-to-genome anchoring. Results of this study provide for the first time a collection of high-throughput tetraploid oat markers and a comprehensive map of the genome, providing insights to the genome ancestry of oat and affording a resource for study of oat domestication, gene transfer, and comparative genomics. © 2011 Springer-Verlag (outside the USA).


Hippolyte I.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Bakry F.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Seguin M.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Gardes L.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | And 20 more authors.
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2010

Background: The genus Musa is a large species complex which includes cultivars at diploid and triploid levels. These sterile and vegetatively propagated cultivars are based on the A genome from Musa acuminata, exclusively for sweet bananas such as Cavendish, or associated with the B genome (Musa balbisiana) in cooking bananas such as Plantain varieties. In M. acuminata cultivars, structural heterozygosity is thought to be one of the main causes of sterility, which is essential for obtaining seedless fruits but hampers breeding. Only partial genetic maps are presently available due to chromosomal rearrangements within the parents of the mapping populations. This causes large segregation distortions inducing pseudo-linkages and difficulties in ordering markers in the linkage groups. The present study aims at producing a saturated linkage map of M. acuminata, taking into account hypotheses on the structural heterozygosity of the parents.Results: An F1progeny of 180 individuals was obtained from a cross between two genetically distant accessions of M. acuminata, 'Borneo' and 'Pisang Lilin' (P. Lilin). Based on the gametic recombination of each parent, two parental maps composed of SSR and DArT markers were established. A significant proportion of the markers (21.7%) deviated (p < 0.05) from the expected Mendelian ratios. These skewed markers were distributed in different linkage groups for each parent. To solve some complex ordering of the markers on linkage groups, we associated tools such as tree-like graphic representations, recombination frequency statistics and cytogenetical studies to identify structural rearrangements and build parsimonious linkage group order. An illustration of such an approach is given for the P. Lilin parent.Conclusions: We propose a synthetic map with 11 linkage groups containing 489 markers (167 SSRs and 322 DArTs) covering 1197 cM. This first saturated map is proposed as a "reference Musa map" for further analyses. We also propose two complete parental maps with interpretations of structural rearrangements localized on the linkage groups. The structural heterozygosity in P. Lilin is hypothesized to result from a duplication likely accompanied by an inversion on another chromosome. This paper also illustrates a methodological approach, transferable to other species, to investigate the mapping of structural rearrangements and determine their consequences on marker segregation. © 2010 Hippolyte et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Bartos J.,Institute of Experimental Botany | Sandve S.R.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Kolliker R.,ART Agroscope Reckenholz Tänikon | Kopecky D.,Institute of Experimental Botany | And 7 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2011

Species belonging to the Festuca-Lolium complex are important forage and turf species and as such, have been studied intensively. However, their out-crossing nature and limited availability of molecular markers make genetic studies difficult. Here, we report on saturation of F. pratensis and L. multiflorum genetic maps using Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers and the DArTFest array. The 530 and 149 DArT markers were placed on genetic maps of L. multiflorum and F. pratensis, respectively, with overlap of 20 markers, which mapped in both species. The markers were sequenced and comparative sequence analysis was performed between L. multiflorum, rice and Brachypodium. The utility of the DArTFest array was then tested on a Festulolium population FuRs0357 in an integrated analysis using the DArT marker map positions to study associations between markers and freezing tolerance. Ninety six markers were significantly associated with freezing tolerance and five of these markers were genetically mapped to chromosomes 2, 4 and 7. Three genomic loci associated with freezing tolerance in the FuRs0357 population co-localized with chromosome segments and QTLs previously indentified to be associated with freezing tolerance. The present work clearly confirms the potential of the DArTFest array in genetic studies of the Festuca-Lolium complex. The annotated DArTFest array resources could accelerate further studies and improvement of desired traits in Festuca-Lolium species. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

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