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Murviel-lès-Montpellier, France

Smith K.L.,Museum Victoria | Smith K.L.,University of Melbourne | Hale J.M.,Museum Victoria | Hale J.M.,University of Melbourne | And 6 more authors.
Evolution | Year: 2013

Spatio-temporal studies of hybrid zones provide an opportunity to test evolutionary hypotheses of hybrid zone maintenance and movement. We conducted a landscape genetics study on a classic hybrid zone of the south-eastern Australian frogs, Litoria ewingii and Litoria paraewingi. This hybrid zone has been comprehensively studied since the 1960s, providing the unique opportunity to directly assess changes in hybrid zone structure across time. We compared both mtDNA and male advertisement call data from two time periods (present and 1960s). Clinal analysis of the coincidence (same center) and concordance (same width) of these traits indicated that the center of the hybrid zone has shifted 1 km south over the last 40 years, although the width of the zone and the rate of introgression remained unchanged. The low frequency of hybrids, the strong concordance of clines within a time period, and the small but significant movement across the study period despite significant anthropogenic changes through the region, suggest the hybrid zone is a tension zone located within a low-density trough. Hybrid zone movement has not been considered common in the past but our findings highlight that it should be considered a crucial component to our understanding of evolution. © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution. Source


Gay L.,Diversity and Adaptation of Mediterranean Species | Siol M.,Diversity and Adaptation of Mediterranean Species | Ronfort J.,Diversity and Adaptation of Mediterranean Species
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Estimating the genetic variance available for traits informs us about a population's ability to evolve in response to novel selective challenges. In selfing species, theory predicts a loss of genetic diversity that could lead to an evolutionary dead-end, but empirical support remains scarce. Genetic variability in a trait is estimated by correlating the phenotypic resemblance with the proportion of the genome that two relatives share identical by descent ('realized relatedness'). The latter is traditionally predicted from pedigrees (ΦA: expected value) but can also be estimated using molecular markers (average number of alleles shared). Nevertheless, evolutionary biologists, unlike animal breeders, remain cautious about using marker-based relatedness coefficients to study complex phenotypic traits in populations. In this paper, we review published results comparing five different pedigree-free methods and use simulations to test individual-based models (hereafter called animal models) using marker-based relatedness coefficients, with a special focus on the influence of mating systems. Our literature review confirms that Ritland's regression method is unreliable, but suggests that animal models with marker-based estimates of relatedness and genomic selection are promising and that more testing is required. Our simulations show that using molecular markers instead of pedigrees in animal models seriously worsens the estimation of heritability in outcrossing populations, unless a very large number of loci is available. In selfing populations the results are less biased. More generally, populations with high identity disequilibrium (consanguineous or bottlenecked populations) could be propitious for using marker-based animal models, but are also more likely to deviate from the standard assumptions of quantitative genetics models (non-additive variance). © 2013 Gay et al. Source

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