Hartwig S.,Institute of Clinical Biochemistry and Pathobiochemistry |
Hartwig S.,German Center for Diabetes Research |
Raschke S.,Paul Langerhans Group for Integrative Physiology |
Raschke S.,German Center for Diabetes Research |
And 38 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Proteins and Proteomics | Year: 2014
The skeletal muscle is a metabolically active tissue that secretes various proteins. These so-called myokines have been proposed to affect muscle physiology and to exert systemic effects on other tissues and organs. Yet, changes in the secretory profile may participate in the pathophysiology of metabolic diseases. The present study aimed at characterizing the secretome of differentiated primary human skeletal muscle cells (hSkMC) derived from healthy, adult donors combining three different mass spectrometry based non-targeted approaches as well as one antibody based method. This led to the identification of 548 non-redundant proteins in conditioned media from hSkmc. For 501 proteins, significant mRNA expression could be demonstrated. Applying stringent consecutive filtering using SignalP, SecretomeP and ER-retention signal databases, 305 proteins were assigned as potential myokines of which 12 proteins containing a secretory signal peptide were not previously described. This comprehensive profiling study of the human skeletal muscle secretome expands our knowledge of the composition of the human myokinome and may contribute to our understanding of the role of myokines in multiple biological processes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biomarkers: A Proteomic Challenge. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Fritsche L.,Div. of Endocrinology |
Neukamm S.S.,Div. of Endocrinology |
Lehmann R.,Div. of Endocrinology |
Kremmer E.,Helmholtz Center Munich |
And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2011
The identity of specific serine phosphorylation residues of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-2 and their impact on insulin signal transduction are largely unknown. Ser675 and Ser907 of mouse IRS-2 are adjacent to PI 3-kinase or Grb2 binding domains, respectively. Using monoclonal phosphosite-specific antibodies, we demonstrated the phosphorylation of both serines after stimulation of Fao hepatoma cells with insulin, anisomycin, or phorbol esters. Phosphorylation of both sites was a late and prolonged event during insulin treatment and was also detected in liver tissue of insulin-treated as well as refed mice. Inhibition and siRNA-mediated knockdown of ERK1/2 indicated that the insulininduced phosphorylation of Ser907 was ERK dependent. Phosphorylation of Ser907 did not prevent the insulin-induced association of IRS-2 with Grb2, but phosphorylation of the adjacent Tyr911 was proved to be crucial in HEK 293 cells expressing IRS-2 Ala mutants. The insulin-induced phosphorylation of Ser675 was prevented by inhibition and siRNA-mediated knockdown of mTOR but not of p70S6K1. Mutation of Ser675 to Ala did not affect downstream insulin signaling but increased the half-life of the protein, suggesting an involvement of phospho-Ser675 in an accelerated degradation of IRS-2. Moreover, the insulin-induced degradation of IRS-2 was blocked by inhibition of mTOR. We conclude that the two novel insulin-dependent serine phosphorylation sites of IRS-2 were not involved in the regulation of the adjacent PI 3-kinase and Grb2 binding domains but might be implicated in the ERK- and mTORmediated negative feedback control. © 2011 the American Physiological Society.
PubMed | Div. of Endocrinology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism | Year: 2010
The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis is a major contributor in maintaining energy expenditure and body weight, and the adipocyte hormone leptin regulates this axis by increasing TRH levels in the fed state. Leptin stimulates TRH directly in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN; direct pathway) and indirectly by regulating proopiomelnocortin neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC; indirect pathway). Whereas the indirect pathway is fully functional in lean animals, it is inactive during diet-induced obesity (DIO) because of the establishment of leptin resistance. Despite this, the HPT axis activity in obese humans and rodents remains within the normal levels or slightly higher. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to determine the mechanism(s) by which the HPT axis is still active despite leptin resistance. With a combination of using the Sprague-Dawley rat physiological model and the Zuker rat that bears a mutation in the leptin receptor, we were able to demonstrate that under DIO conditions the HPT axis is regulated at the central level, but only through the direct pathway of leptin action on TRH neurons. Deiodinase enzymes, which are present in many tissues and responsible for converting thyroid hormones, were not statistically different between lean and DIO animals. These data suggest that the increase in T(4/3) seen in obese animals is due mostly to central leptin action. We also found that T(3) feedback inhibition on the prepro-TRH gene is controlled partially by leptin-induced pSTAT3 signaling via the TRH promoter. This interactive relationship between T(3) and pSTAT3 signaling appears essential to maintain the HPT axis at normal levels in conditions such as obesity.
PubMed | Div. of Endocrinology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism | Year: 2012
Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) is a member of the parathyroid hormone (PTH) family of peptide hormones that exerts its function by interacting with the PTH type 2 receptor (PTH2R). Presently, no known function has been attributed to this signaling pathway in the developing skeleton. We observed that TIP39 and PTH2R were present in the newborn mouse growth plate, with the receptor localizing in the resting zone whereas ligand expression was restricted exclusively in prehypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes. By 8 wk of life, PTH2R, and to a lesser degree TIP39, immunoreactivity was present in articular chondrocytes. We therefore sought to investigate the role of TIP39/PTH2R signaling in chondrocytes by generating stably transfected CFK2 chondrocytic cells overexpressing PTH2R (CFK2R). TIP39 treatment of CFK2R clones in culture inhibited their proliferation by restricting cells at the G(0)/G(1) phase of the cell cycle, coupled with decreased expression and activity of cyclin-dependent kinases Cdk2 and Cdk4, while p21, an inhibitor of Cdks, was upregulated. In addition, TIP39 treatment decreased expression of differentiation markers in these cells associated with marked alterations in extracellular matrix and metalloproteinase expression. Transcription of Sox9, the master regulator of cartilage differentiation, was reduced in TIP39-treated CFK2R clones. Moreover, Sox9 promoter activity, as measured by luciferase reporter assay, was markedly diminished after TIP39 treatment. In summary, our results show that TIP39/PTH2R signaling inhibits proliferation and alters differentiation of chondrocytes by modulating SOX9 expression, thereby substantiating the functional significance of this signaling pathway in chondrocyte biology.