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Li F.,Shenyang Pharmaceutical University | Song S.,Shenyang Pharmaceutical University | Guo Y.,Shenyang Pharmaceutical University | Zhao Q.,Shenyang Pharmaceutical University | And 3 more authors.
Drug Delivery | Year: 2015

The present work was performed aiming to develop a new solid self-emulsifying system (SMEDDS) for poorly water-soluble drug Lornoxicam and evaluate the bioavailability in Wister rats by oral gavage. Liquid SMEDDS of Lornoxicam was formulated with Labrafil M 1944 CS as oil phase, Kolliphor HS 15 as a surfactant and Transcutol HP as a cosurfactant after screening various vehicles. The microemulsion system selected from the phase diagram and optimized by central composite design (CCD) response surface method was transformed into solid-SMEDDS (S-SMEDDS) by lyophilization using sucrose as cryoprotectant. The formulations were further characterized by the particle size, poly dispersity index (PDI), self-emulsifying time, zeta potential, transmission electron microscope (TEM), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), in vitro drug release and in vivo pharmacokinetics. Results of DSC studies confirmed that the drug was incorporated in the S-SMEDDS. The in vitro drug release from Lornoxicam SMEDDS was found to be greatly higher in comparison with that from the commercial tablets. It was indicated that SMEDDS might be effective in reducing the effect of pH variability of Lornoxicam and improving the release performance of Lornoxicam. HPLC system was applied to study the concentration of Lornoxicam in the plasma of the Wister rats after oral administration of Lornoxicam SMEDDS and Lornoxicam commercial tablets. The pharmacokinetics parameters of the rats were Cmax 1065.91±224.90 and 1855.22±748.25 ngmL-1, Tmax were 2.5±0.4 h and 1.8±0.5 h, and AUC0∼t were 5316.35±323.62 and 7758.07±241.57 ngmL-1 h, respectively. Calculated by AUC0∼∞, the relative bioavailability of Lornoxicam S-SMEDDS was 151.69±15.32%. It suggested that this S-SMEDDS could be used as a successful oral solid dosage form to improve the solubility and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drug Lornoxicam as well. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved.

Goedert J.D.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Sekpe V.D.,District Delivery
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management | Year: 2013

This paper presents a conceptual approach to scheduling multiple projects in a matrix organization with rapidly changing and sometimes competing objectives using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) within a decision support system (DSS). This approach increased the analytical capabilities and scheduling efficacy of traditional scheduling processes in a medium-sized electric utility company. The purpose of this paper is to establish a logical framework for scheduling multiple projects with competing priorities while taking into account all known corporate organizational constraints. Traditional scheduling techniques such as the program evaluation and review technique and critical-path method are heavily based on time constraints and resource availability, neglecting factors such as customer satisfaction, organizational financial objectives, political risks, and other intangible parameters that greatly influence scheduling processes. The primary contribution of this paper is a conceptual framework that offers a platform to incorporate tangible and intangible variables into a decision support system using AHP for scheduling multiple projects with competing objectives in matrix organizations. The results of the application showed that, when compared with traditional scheduling methods, this DSS model with integrated AHP showed improvements in prioritizing in accordance with political risks, cash-flow demands, and crew allocation. It appears to be a superior solution for solving prioritization issues in matrix organizations. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Liu G.,District Delivery | Yang J.,Cangzhou Central Hospital | Zhao Y.,Cangzhou Central Hospital | Wang Z.,Cangzhou Central Hospital | And 3 more authors.
World Journal of Surgical Oncology | Year: 2014

Background: The potential of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) as a biomarker for colorectal cancer was studied. A prospective, randomized, controlled, clinical trial was conducted in 2013 and 2014 to confirm whether the expression of SLPI correlates with prognosis and metastasis in colorectal cancer patients. Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect SLPI expression in colorectal cancer. The expression of SLPI was scored by two pathologists independently. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using a χ2 test to investigate the influence of SLPI on the pathologic characteristics of colorectal cancer. Results: Compared with normal tissue, SLPI was overexpressed in colorectal cancer tissue. Overexpression of SLPI correlated with different grades (moderate or good differentiation: 2.7% low expression versus 97.3% high expression, low differentiation: 41.7% low expression versus 58.3% high expression), TNM stage (I or II: 4.2% low expression versus 95.8% high expression; III or IV: 19.7% low expression versus 80.3% high expression), lymphatic metastasis (18.6% low expression versus 81.4% high expression) and distal metastasis (86.5% low expression versus 13.5% high expression), but not with patient age or sex (P = 0.613, P = 0.871). Conclusions: Upregulated SLPI correlates with aggressive pathologic characteristics of colorectal cancer; SLPI could be used as an indicator of progression and metastasis in patients with colorectal cancer. © Liu et al.

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