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Brady K.T.,Distinguished University | Back S.E.,Medical University of South Carolina | Back S.E.,Ralph Hjohnson Veterans Affairs Medical Center
Alcohol Research: Current Reviews | Year: 2012

Early-childhood trauma is strongly associated with developing mental health problems,including alcohol dependence, later in life. People with early-life trauma may usealcohol to help cope with trauma-related symptoms. This article reviews theprevalence of early-childhood trauma and its robust association with the developmentof alcohol use disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder. It also examines thepotential biological mechanisms by which early adverse experiences can result inlong-lasting changes in neurobiology underlying this vulnerability, as well aspharmacological and behavioral interventions. Recent investigations highlight theimportance of assessing trauma among patients with alcohol use disorders and thepositive benefits associated with the application of integrative psychosocialinterventions that target both trauma-related symptoms and alcohol dependence. Source


Stoyanov D.,Plovdiv University | Stoyanov D.,University of Pittsburgh | Schaffner K.F.,Distinguished University
Philosophy, Psychiatry and Psychology | Year: 2013

The contemporary epistemic status of mental health disciplines does not allow the cross-validation of mental disorders among various genetic markers, biochemical pathway or mechanisms, and clinical assessments in neuroscience explanations. We attempt to provide a meta-empirical analysis of the contemporary status of the cross-disciplinary issues existing between neurobiology and psychopathology. Our case studies take as an established medical mode an example crossvalidation between biological sciences and clinical cardiology in the case of myocardial infarction. This is then contrasted with (...) the incoherence between neuroscience and psychiatry in the case of bipolar disorders. We examine some methodological problems arising from the neuroimaging studies, specifically the experimental paradigm introduced by the team of Wayne Drevets. Several theoretical objections are raised: temporal discordance, state independence, and queries about the reliability and specificity, and failure of convergent validity of the interdisciplinary attempt. Both modern neuroscience and clinical psychology taken as separate fields have failed to reveal the explanatory mechanisms underlying mental disorders. The data acquired inside the monodisciplinary matrices of neurobiology and psychopathology are deeply insufficient concerning their validity, reliability, and utility. Further, there have not been developed any effective transdisciplinary connections between them. It raises the requirement for development of explanatory significant multidisciplinary 'meta-language' in psychiatry. We attempt to provide a novel conceptual model for an integrative dialogue between psychiatry and neuroscience that actually includes criteria for cross-validation of the commonly used psychiatric categories and the different assessment methods. The major goal of our proactive program is the foundation of complementary 'bridging' connections of neuroscience and psychopathology, which may stabilize the cognitive meta-structure of mental health knowledge. This entails bringing into synergy the disparate discourses of clinical psychology and neuroscience. One possible model accomplishment of this goal would be the synergistic (or at least compatible) integration of the knowledge under transdisciplinary convergent crossvalidation of the commonly used methods and notions. © 2014 by The Johns Hopkins University Press. Source


News Article
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In hopes of limiting the disastrous environmental effects of massive oil spills, materials scientists from Drexel Univ. and Deakin Univ., in Australia, have teamed up to manufacture and test a new material, called a boron nitride nanosheet, that can absorb up to 33 times its weight in oils and organic solvents—a trait that could make it an important technology for quickly mitigating these costly accidents. The material, which literally absorbs the oil like a sponge, is the result of support from the Australian Research Council and is now ready to be tested by industry after two years of refinement in the laboratory at Deakin's Institute for Frontier Materials (IFM). Alfred Deakin Professor Ying (Ian) Chen, PhD, the lead author of a paper, recently published in Nature Communications, said the material is the most exciting advancement in oil spill remediation technology in decades. "Oil spills are a global problem and wreak havoc on our aquatic ecosystems, not to mention cost billions of dollars in damage," Chen said. "Everyone remembers the Gulf Coast disaster, but here in Australia they are a regular problem, and not just in our waters. Oil spills from trucks and other vehicles can close freeways for an entire day, again amounting to large economic losses," Chen said. The Australian Research Council supported the development of the boron nitride nanosheets, because, according to Chen, current methods of cleaning up oil spills are inefficient and unsophisticated—taking too long and causing ongoing and expensive damage. The nanosheet is made up of flakes, which are just several nanometers (one billionth of a meter) in thickness with tiny holes. This form enables the nanosheet to, in effect, increase its surface area per gram to the size of five and a half tennis courts. According to lead author, Weiwei Lei, PhD, an IFM scientist and an Australian Research Council Discovery Early Career Research Awardee, turning the powder into a sponge was a big challenge—but an essential step in the process. "In 2013 we developed the first stage of the material, but it was simply a powder. This powder had absorption capabilities, but you cannot simply throw powder onto oil—you need to be able to bind that powder into a sponge so that we can soak the oil up, and also separate it from water," Wei said. "The pores in the nanosheets provide the surface area to absorb oils and organic solvents up to 33 times its own weight." Researchers from Drexel's College of Engineering helped to study and functionalize the material, which started as boron nitride powder, commonly called "white graphite." By forming the powder in to atomically thin sheets, the material could be made into a sponge. "The mechanochemical technique developed meant it was possible to produce high-concentration stable aqueous colloidal solutions of boron nitride sheets, which could then be transformed into the ultralight porous aerogels and membranes for oil clean-up," said Vadym Mochalin, PhD, a co-author of the paper, who was a research associate professor at Drexel while working on the project, and is now an associate professor at Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology. The Drexel team used computational modeling to help understand the intimate details of how the material was formed. In the process, the team learned that the boron nitride nanosheets are flame resistant—which means they could also find applications in electrical and heat insulation. "We are delighted that support from the Australian Research Council allowed us to participate in this interesting study and we could help our IFM colleagues to model and better understand this wonderful material, " said Yury Gogotsi, PhD, Distinguished University and Trustee Chair professor in Drexel's College of Engineering, and director of the A.J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute. The nanotechnology team at Deakin's Institute for Frontier Materials has been working on boron nitride nanomaterials for two decades and has been internationally recognized for its work in the development of boron nitride nanotubes and nanosheets. This project is the next step in the IFM's continued research to discover new uses for the material. "We are so excited to have finally got to this stage after two years of trying to work out how to turn what we knew was a good material into something that could be practically used," Chen said.


Home > Press > Containing our 'electromagnetic pollution': MXene can protect mobile devices from electromagnetic interference Abstract: If you've ever heard your engine rev through your radio while listening to an AM station in your car, or had your television make a buzzing sound when your cell phone is near it, then you've experienced electromagnetic interference. This phenomenon, caused by radio waves, can originate from anything that creates, carries or uses an electric current, including television and internet cables, and, of course cell phones and computers. A group of researchers at Drexel University and the Korea Institute of Science & Technology is working on cleaning up this electromagnetic pollution by containing the emissions with a thin coating of a nanomaterial called MXene. Electromagnetic radiation is everywhere -- that's been the case since the beginning of the universe. But the proliferation of electronics in recent decades has contributed both to the volume of radiation generated on our planet and its noticeability. "As technology evolves and electronics become lighter, faster and smaller, their electromagnetic interference increases dramatically," said Babak Anasori, PhD, a research assistant professor in the A.J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute, and a co-author of the paper "Electromagnetic Interference Shielding with 2D Transition Metal Carbides (MXenes)," which was recently published in the journal Science. "Internal electromagnetic noise coming from different electronic parts can have a serious effect on everyday devices such as cell phones, tablets and laptops, leading to malfunctions and overall degradation of the device." These effects range from temporary monitor "fuzziness," strange buzzing from a Bluetooth device, to a slow in processing speed of a mobile device. Shielding against electromagnetic interference typically includes encasing the interior of devices with a shroud or cage of a conductive metal like copper or aluminum, or a coating of metallic ink. And while this is effective, it also adds weight to the device and is considered a restriction on how small the device can be designed. "In general, adequate shielding can be achieved by using thick metals, however, material consumption and weight leave them at a disadvantage for use in aerospace and telecommunication applications," Anasori said. "Therefore, it is of great importance to achieve better protection with thinner films." Their findings suggest that a few-atoms thin titanium carbide, one of about 20 two-dimensional materials in the MXene family discovered by Drexel University scientists, can be more effective at blocking and containing electromagnetic interference, with the added benefit of being extremely thin and easily applied in a coating just by spraying it onto any surface -- like paint. "With technology advancing so fast, we expect smart devices to have more capabilities and become smaller every day. This means packing more electronic parts in one device and more devices surrounding us," said Yury Gogotsi, PhD, Distinguished University and Trustee Chair professor in the College of Engineering and Director of the A.J. Nanomaterials Institute who proposed the idea and led this research. "To have all these electronic components working without interfering with each other, we need shields that are thin, light and easy to apply to devices of different shapes and sizes. We believe MXenes are going to be the next generation of shielding materials for portable, flexible and wearable electronics." Researchers tested samples of MXene films ranging in thickness from just a couple micrometers (one-thousandth of a millimeter) up to 45 micrometers, which is slightly thinner than a human hair. This is significant because a material's shielding effectiveness, a measure of a material's ability to block electromagnetic radiation from passing through it, tends to increase with its thickness, and for purposes of this research the team was trying to identify the thinnest iteration of a shielding material that could still effectively block the radiation. What they found is that the thinnest film of MXene is competing with copper and aluminum foils when it comes to shielding effectiveness. And by increasing thickness of the MXene to 8 micrometers, they could achieve 99.9999 percent blockage of radiation with frequencies covering the range from cell phones to radars. In comparison to other synthetic materials, such as graphene or carbon fibers, the thin sample of MXene performed much better. In fact, to achieve commercial electromagnetic shielding requirements, currently used carbon-polymer composites would have to be more than one millimeter thick, which would add quite a bit of heft to a device like an iPhone, that is just seven millimeters thick. The key to MXene's performance lies in its high electrical conductivity and two-dimensional structure. According to the authors, when electromagnetic waves come in contact with MXene, some are immediately reflected from its surface, while others pass through the surface but they lose energy amidst the material's atomically thin layers. The lower energy electromagnetic waves are eventually reflected back and forth off the internal layers until they're completely absorbed in the structure. One other result, that already portends MXene's usefulness in protecting wearable devices, is that its shielding effectiveness is just as stout when it is combined with a polymer to make a composite coating. And, on weight basis, it even outperforms pure copper. "This finding is significant since several commercial requirements for an electromagnetic interference shield product are engrained in a single material," Gogotsi said. "MXene displays many of these characteristics, including high shielding effectiveness, low density, small thickness, high flexibility and simple processing. So it is an excellent candidate for use in numerous applications." This technological development resulted from a fundamental study of MXene properties, which was funded by the National Science Foundation. The next step for the research team will be to find support for a broader study on other MXenes, selecting the best shielding material and testing it in devices. For more information, please click If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.


News Article | September 9, 2016
Site: http://www.rdmag.com/rss-feeds/all/rss.xml/all

If you've ever heard your engine rev through your radio while listening to an AM station in your car, or had your television make a buzzing sound when your cell phone is near it, then you've experienced electromagnetic interference. This phenomenon, caused by radio waves, can originate from anything that creates, carries or uses an electric current, including television and internet cables, and, of course cell phones and computers. A group of researchers at Drexel University and the Korea Institute of Science & Technology is working on cleaning up this electromagnetic pollution by containing the emissions with a thin coating of a nanomaterial called MXene. Electromagnetic radiation is everywhere -- that's been the case since the beginning of the universe. But the proliferation of electronics in recent decades has contributed both to the volume of radiation generated on our planet and its noticeability. "As technology evolves and electronics become lighter, faster and smaller, their electromagnetic interference increases dramatically," said Babak Anasori, PhD, a research assistant professor in the A.J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute, and a co-author of the paper "Electromagnetic Interference Shielding with 2D Transition Metal Carbides (MXenes)," which was recently published in the journal Science. "Internal electromagnetic noise coming from different electronic parts can have a serious effect on everyday devices such as cell phones, tablets and laptops, leading to malfunctions and overall degradation of the device." These effects range from temporary monitor "fuzziness," strange buzzing from a Bluetooth device, to a slow in processing speed of a mobile device. Shielding against electromagnetic interference typically includes encasing the interior of devices with a shroud or cage of a conductive metal like copper or aluminum, or a coating of metallic ink. And while this is effective, it also adds weight to the device and is considered a restriction on how small the device can be designed. "In general, adequate shielding can be achieved by using thick metals, however, material consumption and weight leave them at a disadvantage for use in aerospace and telecommunication applications," Anasori said. "Therefore, it is of great importance to achieve better protection with thinner films." Their findings suggest that a few-atoms thin titanium carbide, one of about 20 two-dimensional materials in the MXene family discovered by Drexel University scientists, can be more effective at blocking and containing electromagnetic interference, with the added benefit of being extremely thin and easily applied in a coating just by spraying it onto any surface -- like paint. "With technology advancing so fast, we expect smart devices to have more capabilities and become smaller every day. This means packing more electronic parts in one device and more devices surrounding us," said Yury Gogotsi, PhD, Distinguished University and Trustee Chair professor in the College of Engineering and Director of the A.J. Nanomaterials Institute who proposed the idea and led this research. "To have all these electronic components working without interfering with each other, we need shields that are thin, light and easy to apply to devices of different shapes and sizes. We believe MXenes are going to be the next generation of shielding materials for portable, flexible and wearable electronics." Researchers tested samples of MXene films ranging in thickness from just a couple micrometers (one-thousandth of a millimeter) up to 45 micrometers, which is slightly thinner than a human hair. This is significant because a material's shielding effectiveness, a measure of a material's ability to block electromagnetic radiation from passing through it, tends to increase with its thickness, and for purposes of this research the team was trying to identify the thinnest iteration of a shielding material that could still effectively block the radiation. What they found is that the thinnest film of MXene is competing with copper and aluminum foils when it comes to shielding effectiveness. And by increasing thickness of the MXene to 8 micrometers, they could achieve 99.9999 percent blockage of radiation with frequencies covering the range from cell phones to radars. In comparison to other synthetic materials, such as graphene or carbon fibers, the thin sample of MXene performed much better. In fact, to achieve commercial electromagnetic shielding requirements, currently used carbon-polymer composites would have to be more than one millimeter thick, which would add quite a bit of heft to a device like an iPhone, that is just seven millimeters thick. The key to MXene's performance lies in its high electrical conductivity and two-dimensional structure. According to the authors, when electromagnetic waves come in contact with MXene, some are immediately reflected from its surface, while others pass through the surface but they lose energy amidst the material's atomically thin layers. The lower energy electromagnetic waves are eventually reflected back and forth off the internal layers until they're completely absorbed in the structure. One other result, that already portends MXene's usefulness in protecting wearable devices, is that its shielding effectiveness is just as stout when it is combined with a polymer to make a composite coating. And, on weight basis, it even outperforms pure copper. "This finding is significant since several commercial requirements for an electromagnetic interference shield product are engrained in a single material," Gogotsi said. "MXene displays many of these characteristics, including high shielding effectiveness, low density, small thickness, high flexibility and simple processing. So it is an excellent candidate for use in numerous applications." This technological development resulted from a fundamental study of MXene properties, which was funded by the National Science Foundation. The next step for the research team will be to find support for a broader study on other MXenes, selecting the best shielding material and testing it in devices.

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