West and East Lealman, FL, United States
West and East Lealman, FL, United States

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Leighty K.A.,Disneys Animals | Valuska A.J.,Disneys Animals | Grand A.P.,Lemur Conservation Foundation | Bettinger T.L.,Disneys Animals | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Prior research has shown that the use of apes, specifically chimpanzees, as performers in the media negatively impacts public attitudes of their conservation status and desirability as a pet, yet it is unclear whether these findings generalize to other non-human primates (specifically non-ape species). We evaluated the impact of viewing an image of a monkey or prosimian in an anthropomorphic or naturalistic setting, either in contact with or in the absence of a human. Viewing the primate in an anthropomorphic setting while in contact with a person significantly increased their desirability as a pet, which also correlated with increased likelihood of believing the animal was not endangered. The majority of viewers felt that the primates in all tested images were "nervous." When shown in contact with a human, viewers felt they were "sad" and "scared", while also being less "funny." Our findings highlight the potential broader implications of the use of non-human primate performers by the entertainment industry. © 2015 Leighty et al.


Erlacher-Reid C.D.,Florida College | Norton T.M.,Georgia Sea Turtle Center | Harms C.A.,North Carolina State University | Thompson R.,Apple Inc | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2013

Intestinal or cloacal strictures that resulted in intestinal obstruction were diagnosed in six green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) from three rehabilitation facilities and two zoologic parks. The etiologies of the strictures were unknown in these cases. It is likely that anatomic adaptations of the gastrointestinal tract unique to the green sea turtle's herbivorous diet, paired with causes of reduced intestinal motility, may predispose the species to intestinal damage and subsequent obstructive intestinal disease. In aquarium-maintained green sea turtles, obesity, diet, reduced physical activity, chronic intestinal disease, and inappropriate or inadequate antibiotics might also be potential contributing factors. Clinical, radiographic, and hematologic abnormalities common among most of these sea turtles include the following: positive buoyancy; lethargy; inappetence; regurgitation; obstipation; dilated bowel and accumulation of oral contrast material; anemia; hypoglycemia; hypoalbuminemia; hypocalcemia; and elevated creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and blood urea nitrogen. Although these abnormalities are nonspecific with many possible contributing factors, intestinal disease, including strictures, should be considered a differential in green sea turtles that demonstrate all or a combination of these clinical findings. Although diagnostic imaging, including radiographs, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging, are important in determining a cause for suspected gastrointestinal disease and identifying an anatomic location of obstruction, intestinal strictures were not successfully identified when using these imaging modalities. Lower gastrointestinal contrast radiography, paired with the use of oral contrast, was useful in identifying the suspected site of intestinal obstruction in two cases. Colonoscopy was instrumental in visually diagnosing intestinal stricture in one case. Therefore, lower gastrointestinal contrast radiography and colonoscopy should be considered in green turtles when gastrointestinal obstructions are suspected. Although partial strictures of the cloacal opening may be identified on gross examination and might be managed with appropriate medical treatment, surgical intervention or humane euthanasia are likely the only options for sea turtles once small or large intestinal strictures have formed. © 2013 American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.


Stutchbury B.J.M.,York University | Fraser K.C.,University of Manitoba | Silverio C.,York University | Kramer P.,York University | And 5 more authors.
Animal Behaviour | Year: 2016

In long-distance migrants, it has been hypothesized that re-pairing in spring is facilitated if, on the wintering grounds, formerly mated individuals maintain close proximity or occupy ecologically similar habitat, which then results in more synchronized spring migration schedules. For songbirds, pair members have long been thought to migrate independently, but only recently has it been possible to directly track start-to-finish migration to test this prediction. We used light-sensor geolocators to track paired versus nonpaired purple martins, Progne subis subis, that breed in North America and winter in South America. In 6 of 12 pairs, pair members departed on autumn migration within 4 days of each other, but pairs rarely occupied nearby stopover sites in Central America and were separated by an average of 560 km upon arrival in Brazil. Formerly paired birds were not significantly more similar in autumn or spring migration timing, or winter roost location, compared with nonpaired birds tracked from the same colonies and years. Formerly mated pairs who were closer together in Brazil, or who occupied regions with similar amounts of forest cover, did not have more synchronized spring migration schedules. Only 1 of 12 pairs that were tracked remated after migration. Intense competition for nesting cavities combined with disparate spring migration schedules of former pairs probably contributes to the high divorce rate. © 2016 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.


PubMed | Lester sher Center For The Study And Conservation Of Apes, Disneys Animals, Lemur Conservation Foundation and Association of Zoos and Aquariums
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Prior research has shown that the use of apes, specifically chimpanzees, as performers in the media negatively impacts public attitudes of their conservation status and desirability as a pet, yet it is unclear whether these findings generalize to other non-human primates (specifically non-ape species). We evaluated the impact of viewing an image of a monkey or prosimian in an anthropomorphic or naturalistic setting, either in contact with or in the absence of a human. Viewing the primate in an anthropomorphic setting while in contact with a person significantly increased their desirability as a pet, which also correlated with increased likelihood of believing the animal was not endangered. The majority of viewers felt that the primates in all tested images were nervous. When shown in contact with a human, viewers felt they were sad and scared, while also being less funny. Our findings highlight the potential broader implications of the use of non-human primate performers by the entertainment industry.


Pajuelo M.,University of Florida | Bjorndal K.A.,University of Florida | Arendt M.D.,South Carolina Department of Natural Resources | Foley A.M.,Florida Fish And Wildlife Conservation Commission | And 3 more authors.
Marine Biology | Year: 2016

Intra-population variation in resource use has been increasingly reported for different taxa. In particular, foraging specialization of individuals has been quantified for various generalist populations. Because individual differences in resource use can have a great effect on a population’s ecological and evolutionary dynamics, it is essential to accurately assess how individuals exploit resources. Recent studies have shown that female sea turtles exhibit long-term individual specialization in resource use. In this study, we used stable isotope analysis (δ15N and δ13C) of serially sampled sea turtle scutes from two foraging areas in the Northwest Atlantic to evaluate whether male loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) exhibit patterns in resource use over time similar to those reported for female turtles. We found that some male loggerheads show individual specialization and a long-term consistency in resource use over several years—which adds support to previous findings that male loggerheads exhibit site fidelity to their foraging areas—while others are less consistent or only exhibit consistency for shorter periods of time. This variation in patterns of resource use among male loggerheads appears to be linked to foraging area locations, which were characterized by distinct resource diversity. Thus, these results suggest that resource diversity (habitat and prey items) present at the foraging areas may affect the degree of temporal consistency in resource use and potentially individual foraging specialization in loggerheads. Understanding the drivers of intra-population variation in resource use in loggerheads will allow us to predict how they will respond to changing environmental conditions. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


PubMed | Fundacion Proyecto Titi, Disneys Animals and University of St. Andrews
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Numerous animals have declining populations due to habitat loss, illegal wildlife trade, and climate change. The cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) is a Critically Endangered primate species, endemic to northwest Colombia, threatened by deforestation and illegal trade. In order to assess the current state of this species, we analyzed changes in the population of cotton-top tamarins and its habitat from 2005 to 2012. We used a tailor-made lure strip transect method to survey 43 accessible forest parcels that represent 30% of the species range. Estimated population size in the surveyed region was approximately 2,050 in 2005 and 1,900 in 2012, with a coefficient of variation of approximately 10%. The estimated population change between surveys was -7% (a decline of approximately 1.3% per year) suggesting a relatively stable population. If densities of inaccessible forest parcels are similar to those of surveyed samples, the estimated population of cotton-top tamarins in the wild in 2012 was 6,946 individuals. We also recorded little change in the amount of suitable habitat for cotton-top tamarins between sample periods: in 2005, 18% of surveyed forest was preferred habitat for cotton-top tamarins, while in 2012, 17% percent was preferred. We attribute the relatively stable population of this Critically Endangered species to increased conservation efforts of Proyecto Tit, conservation NGOs, and the Colombian government. Due to continued threats to cotton-top tamarins and their habitat such as agriculture and urban expansion, ongoing conservation efforts are needed to ensure the long-term survival of cotton-top tamarins in Colombia.


Clayton L.A.,National Aquarium | Andrew Stamper M.,Disneys Animals | Whitaker B.R.,National Aquarium | Hadfield C.A.,National Aquarium | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2012

Mycobacterium abscessus pneumonia was diagnosed antemortem in a 23-yr-old male Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Clinical signs included lethargy, hyporexia, coughing, and bloody respiratory discharge. Diagnostic findings included neutrophilic leukocytosis, anemia, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and repeated forceful exhaled breath (sputum) cytology, with acute inflammatory cells and acid-fast positive beaded rods. The bacteria were initially identified free in the sputum sample and subsequently were seen within neutrophils. A culture was positive for a rapidly growing, white, colony-forming organism confirmed as M. abscessus by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. Clinical signs initially resolved with multidrug therapy. Concurrent Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection complicated clinical management and contributed to terminal decline. The dolphin was euthanized 5 mo after initial diagnosis. Necropsy results demonstrated acid-fast positive bacteria in lung tissue and supported the diagnosis of M. abscessus pneumonia. Acid-fast stains and mycobacteria cultures should be considered when evaluating ill dolphins. © 2012 American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.


Harmon T.S.,Disneys Animals | Kamerman T.Y.,Disneys Animals | Corwin A.L.,Disneys Animals | Sellas A.B.,California Academy of Sciences
Journal of Fish Biology | Year: 2016

Genetic evidence is given to support consecutive parthenogenesis in a spotted eagle ray Aetobatus narinari using nuclear microsatellite genotyping. To date, only a handful of births involving the parthenogenesis process in chondrichthyans have been verified using microsatellite markers and even fewer verified as recurring births. This appears to be the first documented case of this process occurring in a myliobatid species. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.


PubMed | California Academy of Sciences and Disneys Animals
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of fish biology | Year: 2016

Genetic evidence is given to support consecutive parthenogenesis in a spotted eagle ray Aetobatus narinari using nuclear microsatellite genotyping. To date, only a handful of births involving the parthenogenesis process in chondrichthyans have been verified using microsatellite markers and even fewer verified as recurring births. This appears to be the first documented case of this process occurring in a myliobatid species.


Fredholm D.V.,Disneys Animals | Mylniczenko N.D.,Disneys Animals | Kukanich B.,Kansas State University
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2016

Critically evaluating the pharmacokinetic behavior of a drug in the body provides crucial information about how to effectively treat a patient. Pharmacokinetic studies that exist in fish have primarily focused on drugs used to treat infectious disease, with minimal attention given to analgesic drugs. The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of meloxicam (1 mg/kg) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (n = 12). A single dose of meloxicam was administered either i.v. or i.m. Blood samples were obtained at predetermined times after drug injection. Plasma meloxicam concentrations were determined by a validated liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method, and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. The mean peak plasma concentration after i.m. injection was 1.95 μg/ml. The mean terminal half-life of meloxicam after i.v. and i.m. administration was 1.36 and 1.8 hr, respectively. The area under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve extrapolated to infinity was 11.26 hr·μg/ml after i.v. administration and 5.72 hr·μg/ml after i.m. administration. Bioavailability of meloxicam after i.m. administration was approximately half that of i.v. administration. Elimination was rapid in both the i.m. and i.v. routes of administration, suggesting that maintaining clinically relevant plasma concentrations may be difficult using this dose. This study represents the first pharmacokinetic evaluation of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug in a fish species, and further studies evaluating efficacy are needed. © 2016 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

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