Clink D.J.,University of California at Davis |
Dillis C.,University of California at Davis |
Feilen K.L.,Disneys Animals |
Beaudrot L.,University of Michigan |
Marshall A.J.,University of Michigan
PLoS ONE | Year: 2017
Effectively characterizing primate diets is fundamental to understanding primate behavior, ecology and morphology. Examining temporal variation in a species' diet, as well as comparing the responses of different species to variation in resource availability, can enhance understanding of the evolution of morphology and socioecology. In this study, we use feeding data collected over five years to describe the diets of two sympatric Southeast Asian primate species of similar body size: white-bearded gibbons (Hylobates albibarbis) and red leaf monkeys (Presbytis rubicunda rubida), in Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Long-term data sets are especially important for characterizing primate diets in Southeast Asia, where the forests exhibit supra-annual mast fruiting events. We found that gibbons were mainly frugivorous, with fruit and figs comprising 70% of their 145 independent feeding observations, whereas leaf monkeys ate a substantial amount of seeds (26%), fruits and figs (26.5%) and leaves (30%, n = 219 independent feeding observations). Leaf monkeys consumed a higher number of plant genera, and this was due mostly to the non-frugivorous portion of their diet. To investigate resource selection by these primates we utilized two different approaches: the Manly Selectivity Ratio, which did not take into account temporal variation of resource availability, and a model selection framework which did incorporate temporal variation. Both species selected figs (Ficus) more than predicted based on their availability under the Manly Selectivity Ratio. Model selection allowed us to determine how these primates alter the proportion of leaves, flowers, seeds, figs and fruit in their diets in response to variation in fruit availability. When fruits were scarce, both gibbons and leaf monkeys incorporated more leaves and figs into their diets, indicating that these two food classes are fallback foods for these primates. We discuss how different measures of resource selection can provide seemingly contradictory results, and emphasize the importance of long term studies that combine independent feeding observations with rigorous assessment of temporal variation in resource availability when modelling feeding selectivity. © 2017 Clink et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
McDonald T.L.,Western EcoSystems Technology Inc. |
Schroeder B.A.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration |
Stacy B.A.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration |
Wallace B.P.,Abt Associates Inc. |
And 8 more authors.
Endangered Species Research | Year: 2017
The 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill posed a severe threat to surface-pelagic sea turtles because the surface convergence zones, which provide vital habitat by aggregating pelagic Sargassum and other floating material, also aggregated floating oil. Following the DWH spill, turtle rescue operations between 17 May and 9 September 2010 documented 937 juvenile sea turtles in the spill area and examined 574 captured turtles. Of the captured turtles, 81% were visibly oiled. Transect searches in convergence zones found Kemp's ridleys (51% of individuals), green turtles (37%), loggerheads (7%), hawksbills (2%), and unidentified sea turtles (2%). Linetransect methods estimated the density of all surface-pelagic sea turtles in surface convergence zones to be 3.32 km-2 (95% CI = 2.82-3.88), and the density of heavily oiled turtles to be 0.24 km-2 (95% CI = 0.15-0.39). Turtle densities and the areal extent of heavy oiling probability were used to estimate total number of turtles exposed to DWH oil. We estimate approximately 402 000 surface- pelagic sea turtles were exposed, and of those, 54 800 were likely to have been heavily oiled. Our estimates formed the basis of surface-pelagic juvenile sea turtle mortality estimates included in the DWH natural resource damage assessment. © Outside the USA the US Government 2017.
Lauritsen A.M.,U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service |
Dixon P.M.,Iowa State University |
Cacela D.,Abt Associates Inc. |
Brost B.,Florida Fish And Wildlife Conservation Commission |
And 6 more authors.
Endangered Species Research | Year: 2017
The 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill and associated response activities overlapped with habitats for multiple life stages of federally protected sea turtles in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Although most assessment efforts focused on documenting the presence, abundance, and exposure of sea turtles to DWH oil in marine habitats, oil also washed ashore on sand beaches used by nesting turtles, specifically in NW Florida and Alabama, USA. In addition, extensive and highly mechanized beach cleanup efforts were conducted in NW Florida as well as Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Thus, the DWH oil spill negatively affected sea turtle nesting directly (e.g. adverse effects of oil exposure) and indirectly (e.g. beach cleanup activities deterring nesting) in several ways. In this study, we used a before-after, control-impact statistical modeling approach to examine long-term (1997-2012) historical records of loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) nest densities in 2 segments of the Florida Gulf coastline, one that was heavily affected by the oil spill (NW Florida) and one that was relatively unaffected (SW Florida). Loggerhead nest densities on NW Florida beaches in 2010 were reduced by 43.7% (95% confidence interval: 10-65%) relative to expected nesting rates in the absence of DWH oil and cleanup efforts. When we applied this reduction to all nesting habitat in NW Florida, this equated to a loss of approximately 251 unrealized nests from the 2010 nesting season-a loss we attribute to direct (e.g. mortality) and indirect (e.g. deterrence of nesting) effects related to the DWH incident. © Outside the USA the US Government 2017.
Soltis J.,Disneys Animals |
Perkins L.,Disneys Animals |
Mellen J.D.,Disneys Animals
Zoo Biology | Year: 2017
A clear need for evidence-based animal management in zoos and aquariums has been expressed by industry leaders. Here, we show how individual animal welfare monitoring can be combined with measurement of environmental conditions to inform science-based animal management decisions. Over the last several years, Disney's Animal Kingdom® has been undergoing significant construction and exhibit renovation, warranting institution-wide animal welfare monitoring. Animal care and science staff developed a model that tracked animal keepers’ daily assessments of an animal's physical health, behavior, and responses to husbandry activity; these data were matched to different external stimuli and environmental conditions, including sound levels. A case study of a female giant anteater and her environment is presented to illustrate how this process worked. Associated with this case, several sound-reducing barriers were tested for efficacy in mitigating sound. Integrating daily animal welfare assessment with environmental monitoring can lead to a better understanding of animals and their sensory environment and positively impact animal welfare. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Price J.T.,Indiana University - Purdue University Fort Wayne |
Price J.T.,Ohio State University |
Paladino F.V.,Indiana University - Purdue University Fort Wayne |
Lamont M.M.,U.S. Geological Survey |
And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2017
The gut microbiome of herbivorous animals consists of organisms that efficiently digest the structural carbohydrates of ingested plant material. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) provide an interesting model of change in these microbial communities because they undergo a pronounced shift from a surface-pelagic distribution and omnivorous diet to a neritic distribution and herbivorous diet. As an alternative to direct sampling of the gut, we investigated the cloacal microbiomes of juvenile green turtles before and after recruitment to neritic waters to observe any changes in their microbial community structure. Cloacal swabs were taken from individual turtles for analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences using Illumina sequencing. One fecal sample was also obtained, allowing for a preliminary comparison with the bacterial community of the cloaca. We found significant variation in the juvenile green turtle bacterial communities between pelagic and neritic habitats, suggesting that environmental and dietary factors support different bacterial communities in green turtles from these habitats. This is the first study to characterize the cloacal microbiome of green turtles in the context of their ontogenetic shifts, which could provide valuable insight into the origins of their gut bacteria and how the microbial community supports their shift to herbivory. © This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.
PubMed | Lester sher Center For The Study And Conservation Of Apes, Disneys Animals, Lemur Conservation Foundation and Association of Zoos and Aquariums
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015
Prior research has shown that the use of apes, specifically chimpanzees, as performers in the media negatively impacts public attitudes of their conservation status and desirability as a pet, yet it is unclear whether these findings generalize to other non-human primates (specifically non-ape species). We evaluated the impact of viewing an image of a monkey or prosimian in an anthropomorphic or naturalistic setting, either in contact with or in the absence of a human. Viewing the primate in an anthropomorphic setting while in contact with a person significantly increased their desirability as a pet, which also correlated with increased likelihood of believing the animal was not endangered. The majority of viewers felt that the primates in all tested images were nervous. When shown in contact with a human, viewers felt they were sad and scared, while also being less funny. Our findings highlight the potential broader implications of the use of non-human primate performers by the entertainment industry.
PubMed | Fundacion Proyecto Titi, Disneys Animals and University of St. Andrews
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016
Numerous animals have declining populations due to habitat loss, illegal wildlife trade, and climate change. The cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) is a Critically Endangered primate species, endemic to northwest Colombia, threatened by deforestation and illegal trade. In order to assess the current state of this species, we analyzed changes in the population of cotton-top tamarins and its habitat from 2005 to 2012. We used a tailor-made lure strip transect method to survey 43 accessible forest parcels that represent 30% of the species range. Estimated population size in the surveyed region was approximately 2,050 in 2005 and 1,900 in 2012, with a coefficient of variation of approximately 10%. The estimated population change between surveys was -7% (a decline of approximately 1.3% per year) suggesting a relatively stable population. If densities of inaccessible forest parcels are similar to those of surveyed samples, the estimated population of cotton-top tamarins in the wild in 2012 was 6,946 individuals. We also recorded little change in the amount of suitable habitat for cotton-top tamarins between sample periods: in 2005, 18% of surveyed forest was preferred habitat for cotton-top tamarins, while in 2012, 17% percent was preferred. We attribute the relatively stable population of this Critically Endangered species to increased conservation efforts of Proyecto Tit, conservation NGOs, and the Colombian government. Due to continued threats to cotton-top tamarins and their habitat such as agriculture and urban expansion, ongoing conservation efforts are needed to ensure the long-term survival of cotton-top tamarins in Colombia.
Harmon T.S.,Disneys Animals |
Kamerman T.Y.,Disneys Animals |
Corwin A.L.,Disneys Animals |
Sellas A.B.,California Academy of Sciences
Journal of Fish Biology | Year: 2016
Genetic evidence is given to support consecutive parthenogenesis in a spotted eagle ray Aetobatus narinari using nuclear microsatellite genotyping. To date, only a handful of births involving the parthenogenesis process in chondrichthyans have been verified using microsatellite markers and even fewer verified as recurring births. This appears to be the first documented case of this process occurring in a myliobatid species. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
PubMed | California Academy of Sciences and Disneys Animals
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of fish biology | Year: 2016
Genetic evidence is given to support consecutive parthenogenesis in a spotted eagle ray Aetobatus narinari using nuclear microsatellite genotyping. To date, only a handful of births involving the parthenogenesis process in chondrichthyans have been verified using microsatellite markers and even fewer verified as recurring births. This appears to be the first documented case of this process occurring in a myliobatid species.
Fredholm D.V.,Disneys Animals |
Mylniczenko N.D.,Disneys Animals |
Kukanich B.,Kansas State University
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2016
Critically evaluating the pharmacokinetic behavior of a drug in the body provides crucial information about how to effectively treat a patient. Pharmacokinetic studies that exist in fish have primarily focused on drugs used to treat infectious disease, with minimal attention given to analgesic drugs. The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of meloxicam (1 mg/kg) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (n = 12). A single dose of meloxicam was administered either i.v. or i.m. Blood samples were obtained at predetermined times after drug injection. Plasma meloxicam concentrations were determined by a validated liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method, and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. The mean peak plasma concentration after i.m. injection was 1.95 μg/ml. The mean terminal half-life of meloxicam after i.v. and i.m. administration was 1.36 and 1.8 hr, respectively. The area under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve extrapolated to infinity was 11.26 hr·μg/ml after i.v. administration and 5.72 hr·μg/ml after i.m. administration. Bioavailability of meloxicam after i.m. administration was approximately half that of i.v. administration. Elimination was rapid in both the i.m. and i.v. routes of administration, suggesting that maintaining clinically relevant plasma concentrations may be difficult using this dose. This study represents the first pharmacokinetic evaluation of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug in a fish species, and further studies evaluating efficacy are needed. © 2016 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.