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Marmolino D.,UCB Biopharma s.p.r.l. | Foerch P.,Discovery Research | Atienzar F.A.,UCB Biopharma s.p.r.l. | Staelens L.,UCB Biopharma s.p.r.l. | And 2 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience | Year: 2016

Parkinson's disease is characterized by degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta along with the formation of intracellular fibrillar inclusions (Lewy bodies and Lewy neuritis), which are mainly composed of aggregated α-synuclein (ASYN). This latter is a 14. kDa protein that localizes to synaptic vesicles in nerve terminals and promotes soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor complex assembly. We explored the monomeric and oligomeric state of ASYN in vitro in HEK293s and SH-SY5Y cell lines. In addition rats were injected in the substantia nigra with an Adeno associated virus carrying the human A53T mutation of ASYN (in vivo experiments). We show that human wild type ASYN as well as PD-linked mutations (A30P, E46K and A53T) in overexpressing conditions mostly exists in a monomeric state in equilibrium with dimeric forms. The monomer/dimer ratio is unaffected by PD-linked mutation. Furthermore, the A30P, E46K and A53T mutations overexpression strongly increased cell death compared to wild type ASYN. Taken together, our data suggest that ASYN dimers amount do not directly correlate to reduced cellular viability, suggesting a different role in protein function and induced pathology. Our data suggest that early ASYN neuro-pathogenic effects are probably mediated by other molecular processes than increased oligomerization alone. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Hirotsu Y.,Tohoku University | Higashi C.,Tohoku University | Higashi C.,Discovery Research | Fukutomi T.,Tohoku University | And 7 more authors.
Genes to Cells | Year: 2014

Nrf1 (NF-E2-related factor 1) is a basic region leucine zipper-type transcription factor belonging to the CNC (cap-'n'-collar) family. Major pathophysiological contribution of Nrf1 remains unclear. As single nucleotide polymorphism rs3764400 in 5′-flanking region of NRF1 gene appears to associate with obesity, in this study, we focused on the Nrf1 function on metabolism. We found that the risk C allele of rs3764400 increased NRF1 gene transcriptional activity compared with the T allele in hepatoma cell lines. Therefore, we newly established Nrf1 transgenic (Nrf1-Tg) mouse lines and examined roles that Nrf1 plays on the obesity and metabolism. Unexpectedly, Nrf1 over-expression repressed bodyweight gain in both lean and diet-induced obesity mice. Of note, Nrf1-Tg mice showed rise in blood glucose levels; Nrf1 strongly reduced glucose infusion rate in euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp test and increased blood glucose levels in insulin tolerance test, indicating that Nrf1 induces insulin resistance in mice. Nrf1 repressed insulin-regulated glycolysis-related gene expression and gave rise to loss of glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate contents in liver. Consistently, Nrf1 heterozygote improved impaired glucose regulations in diet-induced obesity model. These results showed that Nrf1 contributes to metabolic regulation, which gain-of-function develops diabetes mellitus in mice. © 2014 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

Tate C.M.,Eli Lilly and Company | Blosser W.,Eli Lilly and Company | Wyss L.,Discovery Research | Evans G.,Eli Lilly and Company | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2013

LY2228820 dimesylate is a highly selective small molecule inhibitor of p38α and p38β mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that is currently under clinical investigation for human malignancies. p38MAPKis implicated in a wide range of biological processes, in particular those that support tumorigenesis. One such process, angiogenesis, is required for tumor growth and metastasis, and many new cancer therapies are therefore directed against the tumor vasculature. Using an in vitro co-culture endothelial cord formation assay, a surrogate of angiogenesis, we investigated the role of p38 MAPK in growth factor- and tumor-driven angiogenesis using LY2228820 dimesylate treatment and by shRNA gene knockdown. p38 MAPK was activated in endothelial cells upon growth factor stimulation, with inhibition by LY2228820 dimesylate treatment causing a significant decrease in VEGF-, bFGF-, EGF-, and IL-6-induced endothelial cord formation and an even more dramatic decrease in tumor-driven cord formation. In addition to involvement in downstream cytokine signaling, p38 MAPK was important for VEGF, bFGF, EGF, IL-6, and other proangiogenic cytokine secretion in stromal and tumor cells. LY2228820 dimesylate results were substantiated using p38α MAPK-specific shRNA and shRNA against the downstream p38 MAPK effectors MAPKAPK-2 and HSP27. Using in vivo models of functional neoangiogenesis, LY2228820 dimesylate treatment reduced hemoglobin content in a plug assay and decreased VEGF-A-stimulated vascularization in a mouse ear model. Thus, p38α MAPK is implicated in tumor angiogenesis through direct tumoral effects and through reduction of proangiogenic cytokine secretion via the microenvironment. © 2013 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Wang Y.,Worldwide Process Research and Development | Przyuski K.,Worldwide Process Research and Development | Roemmele R.C.,Worldwide Process Research and Development | Hudkins R.L.,Discovery Research | Bakale R.P.,Worldwide Process Research and Development
Organic Process Research and Development | Year: 2013

The evolution of the process to prepare CEP-32215, 3-(1′- cyclobutylspiro[4H-1,3-benzodioxine-2,4′-piperidine]-6-yl)-5,5-dimethyl-1, 4-dihydropyridazine-6-one, is presented. Two routes detailing preparation of supplies for biological screening are discussed along with the optimized fit-for-purpose process used to prepare several hundred grams for preclinical testing. Details on the development of the formation of the key spiroketal moiety are presented along with the discovery of a novel Suzuki coupling approach for synthesis of the backbone of the molecule. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Eriksson O.,Uppsala University | Eriksson O.,University of Turku | Eriksson O.,Abo Akademi University | Laughlin M.,U.S. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases | And 6 more authors.
Diabetologia | Year: 2016

Radiotracer imaging is characterised by high in vivo sensitivity, with a detection limit in the lower picomolar range. Therefore, radiotracers represent a valuable tool for imaging pancreatic beta cells. High demands are made of radiotracers for in vivo imaging of beta cells. Beta cells represent only a small fraction of the volume of the pancreas (usually 1–3%) and are scattered in the tiny islets of Langerhans throughout the organ. In order to be able to measure a beta cell-specific signal, one has to rely on highly specific tracer molecules because current in vivo imaging technologies do not allow the resolution of single islets in humans non-invasively. Currently, a considerable amount of preclinical data are available for several radiotracers and three are under clinical evaluation. We summarise the current status of the evaluation of these tracer molecules and put forward recommendations for their further evaluation. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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