Disaster Management Center

Delhi, India

Disaster Management Center

Delhi, India
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News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: news.yahoo.com

Sri Lankan army rescuers remove debris from a buried house following a garbage mound collapse in Meetotamulla, on the outskirts of Colombo, Sri Lanka, Colombo, Sri Lanka, Monday, April 17, 2017. Rescuers on Monday were digging through heaps of mud and trash that collapsed onto a clutch of homes near a garbage dump outside Sri Lanka's capital, killing dozens and possibly burying dozens more. (AP Photo/Eranga Jayawardena) MEETOTAMULLA, Sri Lanka (AP) — Rescuers on Monday were digging through heaps of mud and trash that collapsed onto a clutch of homes near a garbage dump outside Sri Lanka's capital, killing at least 30 people and possibly burying dozens more. Hundreds of people had been living in the working-class neighborhood on the fringe of the towering dump in Meetotamulla, a town near Colombo, when a huge mound collapsed Friday night during a celebration for the local new year, damaging at least 150 homes. By Monday morning, authorities had pulled the bodies from beneath the debris, according to a Disaster Management Center report. Authorities were unsure how many more people could still be trapped, with contradictory reports being released. They announced 30 people were missing Monday but later reduced the number to 11. Disaster Management Center spokesman Pradeep Kodippili said the number was reduced after adjusting names that had been entered on the list of dead as well as missing. Law and Order Minister Sagala Ratnayake said the number of people could be between six and 10. Soldiers were digging with backhoes and shovels, as relatives of the missing pointed out where their houses once stood amid coconut, mango and banana trees. Those homes now lay in piles of collapsed concrete walls encased in a wall of mud up to 8 meters (25 feet) high and mixed with plastic bags, broken glass and other trash. Bicycles and auto-rickshaws, the three-wheeled vehicles used as local taxis, were crushed or lying topsy-turvy. In other parts of the dump officials were mapping places that can slide and identifying families that need to be evacuated. More than 600 of the area's residents were sheltering in nearby schools, while 11 people were being treated at a hospital for injuries. One auto-rickshaw driver described a narrow escape. He was returning home with his wife, two sons and daughter when they stepped out from his rickshaw and his daughter said the ground seemed to be moving beneath her feet. "There was a strong wind from the side of the dump, and my daughter shouted that the mound is splitting," Rasika Sanjeewa, 41, said Monday. "Suddenly, one slice of the mound came crashing down. The whole area was shaking." Debris blocked them from fleeing immediately, but eventually they found a way out, Sanjeewa said. When they arrived later at their friends' home, where they had planned to celebrate the new year, they found it buried and their friends dead — a mother and daughter who worked as daily wage laborers. The prime minister vowed over the weekend to shut down the dump, which has absorbed much of Colombo's garbage over several years amid heavy construction and renovations in the capital. As the garbage piled up, it began threatening the nearby homes, prompting residents to stage regular protests while complaining of health hazards. "These people did not choose to live next to a dump. But they brought the garbage in and made this place horrible," said rickshaw driver Dilip Mirmal, 34, whose home was spared while those surrounding were completely subsumed. He counted 23 of his neighbors among the dead. "This is a government-made disaster," he said. "I have a mix of feelings — of anger, frustration and sorrow. We have been trying to protest and raise these issues, but no one was listening."

News Article | May 27, 2017
Site: news.yahoo.com

A Sri Lankan wades through floodwater at Agalawatte in Kalutara district, Sri Lanka, Saturday, May 27, 2017. Sri Lanka has appealed for outside help as dozens were killed in floods and mudslides and dozens others went missing. (AP Photo/Eranga Jayawardena) AGALAWATTE, Sri Lanka (AP) — Sri Lanka's military said Saturday that it is doubtful any missing people will be found alive two days after torrents of mud triggered by heavy rain covered homes in southern and western parts of the country, killing 100 people and leaving 99 others missing. The Disaster Management Center said more than 27,000 people have been displaced by the landslides. "I have my doubts" that any survivors will be found, said army Maj. Gen. Sudantha Ranasinghe, who is heading the search and rescue mission. He said that mounds of earth and rocks crashed down in such a way that people could hardly survive, and that most of the affected places were still inundated. "In landslides, it's difficult to find survivors after two days, and today is the second day," Ranasinghe said. The army, navy and air force were continuing to try to reach marooned villagers and evacuate those living in areas prone to mudslides, he said. There were still difficulties in reaching some areas to deliver emergency aid and the air force has been lowering supplies from the air. An airman died after falling while trying to get a villager into a helicopter, Ranasinghe said. The military used large armored vehicles and boats to transport people to safety. But some remained trapped in interior villages where boats have been unable to reach. At an intersection close to Agalawatte, 98 kilometers (60 miles) south of Colombo, Sri Lanka's capital, four bodies in coffins were kept in a house, awaiting boats to be taken to a temple where displaced people have taken refuge. Five members of the same family who were buried in a mudslide — a husband and wife and their three teenage daughters — were laid to rest in a common grave Saturday afternoon. The family's eldest son was the only survivor because he was not at home when the disaster occurred. Residents of Wehangalla village near Agalawatte were marooned as floodwaters swamped most of the buildings up to the roof. They had fled to higher terrain, but four people among them died in a mudslide and three others were missing. They complained that government aid still had not reached the area and they were surviving on food provided by those in nearby villagers. Muslim fishermen from the nearby coastal town of Beruwala came with their boats to help evacuate those stranded while observing the Ramadan fast. Sri Lanka's government appealed to the United Nations as well as other countries for help with rescue and relief measures. Mudslides have become common during the monsoon season in Sri Lanka, a tropical Indian Ocean island nation, as land has been heavily deforested to grow export crops such as tea and rubber. Last May, a massive landslide killed more than 100 people in central Sri Lanka.

News Article | May 28, 2017
Site: news.yahoo.com

People walk through a landslide site during a rescue mission in Athwelthota village, in Kalutara, Sri Lanka May 28, 2017. REUTERS/Dinuka Li AGALAWATTE, Sri Lanka (Reuters) - Landslides and floods in Sri Lanka have killed at least 151 people and the country faces the risk of more mudslides as torrential rains continue, officials said on Sunday. More than 100 people are still missing after the worst rains in the Indian Ocean island since 2003. The state-run National Building Research Organization warned people in seven out of the country's 25 districts to evacuate from unstable slopes if rains continue for the next 24 hours. The Department of Meteorology said there could be heavy rain falls of above 100 millimeters in central Sri Lanka within the next 36 hours. The death toll has risen to 151, while 111 people are still reported missing and 95 injured, the state-run Disaster Management Center said. Nearly 500,000 people have been affected by the disaster, the worst since the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami, and the downpours have displaced over 100,000 Sri Lankans. People in Agalawatte, 74 km (46 miles) from the capital Colombo, said they were losing hope of water levels falling soon. "All access to our village is cut off. A landslide took place inside the village and several houses are buried. But nobody could go to that place," Mohomed Abdulla, 46, told Reuters in Agalawatte, a town in western coastal district of Kalutara, where 47 people have died and 62 are missing. Rescue efforts are under way but are hampered by lack of drinking water, lack of electricity and continued rain. Reuters witnessed some people stranded on the upper floors of their homes and some houses were flooded up to roof level. Civilians and relief officials, sailing in boats, distributed food, water, and relief items. Sri Lanka has already appealed for international assistance from the United Nations and neighboring countries. Some areas in the southern coastal district of Galle, popular with foreign tourists, have not received relief materials due to lack of access. "My entire village is cut off and nobody can come to this village," C.M. Chandrapla, 54, told Reuters over the phone from the tourist village of Neluwa. "There are no supplies for the past two days. Water has gone above three-storey buildings and people survive by running onto higher ground." Sri Lankan military and rescue teams have used boats and helicopters, but they said access to some areas was very difficult. Military spokesman Roshan Senevirathne said more than 2,000 military personnel had been deployed to help the police and civilian agencies. The wettest time of the year in Sri Lanka's south is usually from May to September. Sri Lankan meteorology officials said the rains were the worst since 2003 and they expected more in the coming days.

Padhy S.,National Geophysical Research Institute | Padhy S.,Tohoku University | Mishra O.P.,Geological Survey of India | Mishra O.P.,Disaster Management Center | And 2 more authors.
Tectonophysics | Year: 2011

To understand the genesis of the 25 March 2007 Noto-Hanto earthquake (Mw 6.6), we determined high-resolution 3-D seismic velocity (Vp and Vs) and Poisson's ratio (σ) images in the epicenter area using 24,698 P-wave and 22,927 S-wave arrival times from 809 earthquakes and 265 sP depth-phase data collected from seismograms of 162 earthquakes beneath the Japan Sea. The sub-oceanic events are relocated accurately by using P-, S- and sP depth-phase arrival time data jointly. Our results demonstrate that the seismic velocity (Vp and Vs) and Poisson's ratio (σ) vary markedly in the source area. In and around the main shock hypocenter, low-velocity and high-σ anomalies are revealed, which are apt for accumulation of differential strain to bring the brittle failure. We infer that the zone with pronounced low-velocity and high Poisson's ratio beneath the source area reflects fluid-related anomalies derived either from the dehydration of the subducting Pacific slab or from permeation of sea-water through deep-seated active faults or both to the main shock hypocenter, which in turn may have facilitated the rupture initiation of the main shock and its aftershock sequence by weakening the overlying seismogenic layer beneath the region. Our study reinforces the concept of fluid-driven earthquakes in the peninsular regions, elsewhere in the world. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Dutta P.K.,Jadavpur University | Mishra O.P.,Disaster Management Center | Naskar M.K.,Jadavpur University
Central European Journal of Geosciences | Year: 2013

In the proposed study, non-linear behavioral patterns in the seismic regime for earthquakes in the Himalayan basin have been studied using a complete, verified EQ catalogue comprised of all major events and their aftershock sequences in the Himalayan basin for the past 110 years [1900-2010]. The dataset has been analyzed to give better decision making criteria for impending earthquakes. A series of statistical tests based on multi-dimensional rigorous statistical studies, inter-event distance analyses, and statistical time analyses have been used to obtain correlation dimensions. The time intervals of earthquakes within a seismic regime have been used to train the neural network to analyze the nature of earthquake patterns in the different clusters. The results obtained from descriptive statistics show high correlation with previously conducted gravity studies and radon anomaly variation. A study of the time of recurrence of the numerical properties of the regime for 60 years from 1950 to 2010 for the Himalayan belt for analysis of significant EQ failure events has been done to find the best fit for an empirical data probability distribution. The distribution of waiting time of swarm events occurring in the Himalayan basin follows a power-law model, while independent events do not fit the power-law distribution. This suggests that probability of the occurrence of swarm events [M ≤ 6.0] with frequent shaking may be more frequent than that of the occurrence of independent events of magnitude [M >6.0] in the Himalayan belt. We propose a three-layer feed forward neural network model to identify factors, with the actual occurrence of the maximum earthquake level M as input and target vectors in Himalayan basin area. We infer through a series of statistical results and evaluations that probabilistic forecasting of earthquakes can be achieved by finding the meta-stable cluster zones of the Himalayan clusters for the spatio-temporal distribution of earthquakes in the area. © 2013 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien.

Singh A.P.,Institute of Seismological Research ISR | Mishra O.P.,Geological Survey of India | Mishra O.P.,Disaster Management Center | Rastogi B.K.,Institute of Seismological Research ISR | Kumar D.,Kurukshetra University
Natural Hazards | Year: 2011

Several pieces of studies on the January 26, 2001, Bhuj earthquake (Mw 7.6) revealed that the mainshock was triggered on the hidden unmapped fault in the western part of Indian stable continental region that caused a huge loss in the entire Kachchh rift basin of Gujarat, India. Occurrences of infrequent earthquakes of Mw 7.6 due to existence of hidden and unmapped faults on the surface have become one of the key issues for geoscientific research, which need to be addressed for evolving plausible earthquake hazard mitigation model. In this study, we have carried out a detailed autopsy of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake source zone by applying three-dimensional (3-D) local earthquake tomography (LET) method to a completely new data set consisting of 576 local earthquakes recorded between November 2006 and April 2009 by a seismic network consisting of 22 numbers of three-component broadband digital seismograph stations. In the present study, a total of 7560 arrival times of P-wave (3820) and S-wave (3740) recorded at least 4 seismograph stations were inverted to assimilate 3-D P-wave velocity (Vp), S-wave velocity (Vs), and Poisson's ratio (σ) structures beneath the 2001 Bhuj earthquake source zone for reliable interpretation of the imaged anomalies and its bearing on earthquake hazard of the region. The source zone is located near the triple junction formed by juxtapositions of three Indian, Arabian, and Iranian tectonic plates that might have facilitated the process of brittle failure at a depth of 25 km beneath the KRB, Gujarat, which caused a gigantic loss to both property and persons of the region. There may be several hidden seismogenic faults around the epicentral zone of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake in the area, which are detectable using 3-D tomography to minimize earthquake hazard for a region. We infer that the use of detailed 3-D seismic tomography may offer potential information on hidden and unmapped faults beneath the plate interior to unravel the genesis of such big damaging earthquakes. This study may help in evolving a comprehensive earthquake risk mitigation model for regions of analogous geotectonic settings, elsewhere in the world. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Singh A.P.,Institute of Seismological Research ISR | Mishra O.P.,Disaster Management Center | Kumar D.,Kurukshetra University | Kumar S.,Institute of Seismological Research ISR | Yadav R.B.S.,Indian National Center for Ocean Information Services
Journal of Earth System Science | Year: 2012

We analyzed 3365 relocated aftershocks with magnitude of completeness (Mc) ≥1.7 that occurred in the Kachchh Rift Basin (KRB) between August 2006 and December 2010. The analysis of the new aftershock catalogue has led to improved understanding of the subsurface structure and of the aftershock behaviour. We characterized aftershock behaviour in terms of a-value, b-value, spatial fractal dimension (D s), and slip ratio (ratio of the slip that occurred on the primary fault and that of the total slip). The estimated b-value is 1.05, which indicates that the earthquake occurred due to active tectonics in the region. The three dimensional b-value mapping shows that a high b-value region is sandwiched around the 2001 Bhuj mainshock hypocenter at depths of 20-25 km between two low b-value zones above and below this depth range. The D s-value was estimated from the double-logarithmic plot of the correlation integral and distance between hypocenters, and is found to be 2.64 ± 0.01, which indicates random spatial distribution beneath the source zone in a two-dimensional plane associated with fluid-filled fractures. A slip ratio of about 0.23 reveals that more slip occurred on secondary fault systems in and around the 2001 Bhuj earhquake (Mw 7.6) source zone in KRB. © Indian Academy of Sciences.

Lei J.,China Earthquake Administration | Xie F.,China Earthquake Administration | Mishra O.P.,Disaster Management Center | Lu Y.,China Earthquake Administration | And 2 more authors.
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America | Year: 2012

A high-resolution tomographic model inferred from local and teleseismic arrival-time data under Yunnan, southwest China, shows that the 2011 Yingjiang earthquake (M 5.8) occurred around a low-velocity anomaly that extends down to the top of the mantle transition zone and is attributable to upwelling flow of the active Tengchong volcano. Fluids in the flow may mainly originate from the dehydration of the eastward subduction of the Indian plate in the mantle transition zone and have reached the fault zone. Our results suggest that the occurrence of the Yingjiang earthquake could be closely related to fluids that might enhance the stress concentration on the seismogenic layer, as well as decrease the effective normal stress across the fault planes of the Da Yingjiang fault. We conclude that the Yingjiang earthquake might be a volcano-related fluid-driven earthquake. The successive occurrence of small earthquakes (M > 4:0) and the Yingjiang aftershocks may imply recent magmatism at the Tengchong volcano. The 4 February 2011 Indo-Burma earthquake (M 6.4) occurred at ∼90 km depth, suggesting that the Indian plate is still active and currently subducting eastward, which may explain why several moderate-large earthquakes, such as the 24 March 2011 Burma earthquake (M 7.2), have occurred recently in the region.

Mishra O.P.,Disaster Management Center | Mishra O.P.,Geological Survey of India
Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy | Year: 2012

The recent seismological research and studies in India are dominated by 1) studies on the spatio-temporal aspects of seismogenesis and seismotectonics of the Himalaya and its adjoining regions; 2) Seismological studies on tsunamigenic earthquake and earthquake pattern of the Andaman-Nicobar subduction region of India 3) studies on seismogenesis and seismotectonics of the Stable Continental region (SCR) of India; 4) studies on site response, seismic microzonation, earthquake risk, vulnerability, disaster management and risk mitigation strategies of India; 5) studies on earthquake precursor and prediction of earthquakes in India; 6) studies on seismological issues of outside India. The extensive seismological research in India is principally aimed at understanding the intricate seismological processes beneath the study region vis-a-vis elsewhere in the world having analogous seismotectonic and hydrological settings. Several pieces of outstanding multi-disciplinary detailed studies on the reservoir induced earthquakes have resulted in the formulation of a comprehensive project of "Deep Crustal Drilling" (DCD) in the Koyna-Warna region by involving several institutions of India to unravel the hidden mystery involved with reservoir induced earthquake nucleation and generating processes. A series of seismological publications on challenging issues by Indian researchers in different journals of global repute during the year 2007-2011 gives enough testimony of quality-based seismological research in India, which has significant bearing on opening up of new avenues for conducting leading edge advanced seismological research in the regional and global perspectives. © Printed in India.

Mishra O.P.,Disaster Management Center | Mishra O.P.,Geological Survey of India
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America | Year: 2013

In order to resolve an enigmatic issue relating to the existence of fluidrelated or temperature-related anomalies at the mainshock hypocenter of the 2001 Bhuj, India, earthquake (Mw 7.6), an estimate of the 3D bulk-sound velocity structure is made from the inverted high-quality P- and S-arrival times from a total of 368 aftershocks recorded by 12 temporary seismic stations installed following the 2001 Bhuj earthquake. Results reveal strong lateral and vertical heterogeneity in bulk velocity (Vφ{symbol}) beneath the source zone. The 2001 Bhuj mainshock and its aftershock source zones are associated with anomalously high bulk-sound velocity (high Vφ{symbol}), indicating high bulk elastic strength of the source rocks at the mainshock hypocenter due to high pore pressures of the fully saturated cracked rocks associated with solute precipitation through the processes of acoustic fluidization and cementation. The interpretation of bulk velocity tomograms suggests that the processes of mineral dehydration and permeation of sea/surface water through several active Quaternary faults down to the deep crust might have contributed to in situ fluid-related material heterogeneity in bulk velocity within the fluid-filled fractured rock matrix in the paleorift zone at the 2001 Bhuj mainshock hypocenter, which in turn increased pore pressure, lowered the effective stress, and brought the system into a brittle failure. High Vφ in the intersecting fault geometry in the fractured rock matrix at the mainshock hypocenter can be taken as evidence for the strong role of fluids in association with the intraplate earthquake of the Indian peninsula. © 2013 by the Seismological Society of America.

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