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Modena, Italy

Contini D.,CNR Institute of atmospheric Sciences and Climate | Gambaro A.,University of Venice | Gambaro A.,CNR Institute for the Dynamics of Environmental Processes | Donateo A.,CNR Institute of atmospheric Sciences and Climate | And 7 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2015

Ships and harbour emissions are currently increasing, due to the increase of tourism and trade, with potential impact on global air pollution and climate. At local scale, in-port ship emissions influence air quality in coastal areas impacting on health of coastal communities. International legislations to reduce ship emissions, both at Worldwide and European levels, are mainly based on the use of low-sulphur content fuel. In this work an analysis of the inter-annual trends of primary contribution, ε, of tourist shipping to the atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations in the urban area of Venice has been performed. Measurements have been taken in the summer periods of 2007, 2009 and 2012. Results show a decrease of ε from 7% (±1%) in 2007 to 5% (±1%) in 2009 and to 3.5% (±1%) in 2012. The meteorological and micrometeorological conditions of the campaigns were similar. Tourist ship traffic during measurement campaigns increased, in terms of gross tonnage, of about 25.4% from 2007 to 2009 and of 17.6% from 2009 to 2012. The decrease of ε was associated to the effect of a voluntary agreement (Venice Blue Flag) for the use of low-sulphur content fuel enforced in the area between 2007 and 2009 and to the implementation of the 2005/33/CE Directive in 2010. Results show that the use of low-sulphur fuel could effectively reduce the impact of shipping to atmospheric primary particles at local scale. Further, voluntary agreement could also be effective in reducing the impact of shipping on local air quality in coastal areas. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Ranzi A.,Direzione tecnica | Angelini P.,Servizio di sanit pubblica | Chiusolo M.,Science epidemiologia e salute ambientale | Parmagnani F.,Direzione tecnica | And 3 more authors.
Epidemiologia e Prevenzione | Year: 2014

The SESPIR Project (Epidemiological Surveillance of Health Status of Resident Population Around the Waste Treatment Plants) assessed the impact on health of residents nearby incinerators, landfills and mechanical biological treatment plants in five Italian regions (Emilia-Romagna, Piedmont, Lazio, Campania, and Sicily). The assessment procedure took into account the available knowledge on health effects of waste disposal facilities. Analyses were related to three different scenarios: A Baseline scenario, referred to plants active in 2008- 2009; the regional future scenario, with plants expected in the waste regional plans; a virtuous scenario (Green 2020), based on a policy management of municipal solid waste (MSW) through the reduction of production and an intense recovery policy. Facing with a total population of around 24 million for the 5 regions, the residents nearby the plants were more than 380,000 people at Baseline. Such a population is reduced to approximately 330.000 inhabitants and 170.000 inhabitants in the regional and Green 2020 scenarios, respectively. The health impact was assessed for the period 2008-2040. At Baseline, 1-2 cases per year of cancer attributable to MSW plants were estimated, as well as 26 cases per year of adverse pregnancy outcomes (including low birth weight and birth defects), 102 persons with respiratory symptoms, and about a thousand affected from annoyance caused by odours. These annual estimates are translated into 2.725 years of life with disability (DALYs) estimated for the entire period. The DALYs are reduced by approximately 20% and 80% in the two future scenarios. Even in these cases, health impact is given by the greater effects on pregnancy and the annoyance associated with the odours of plants. In spite of the limitations due to the inevitable assumptions required by the present exercise, the proposed methodology is suitable for a first approach to assess different policies that can be adopted in regional planning in the field of waste management The greatest reduction in health impact is achieved with a virtuous policy of reducing waste production and a significant increase in the collection and recycling of waste. Source

Parmagnani F.,Direzione tecnica | Ranzi A.,Direzione tecnica | Angelini P.,Servizio di Sanita Pubblica | Chiusolo M.,Science epidemiologia e salute ambientale | And 2 more authors.
Epidemiologia e Prevenzione | Year: 2014

The Project Epidemiological Surveillance of Health Status of Resident Population Around the Waste Treatment Plants (SESPIR) included five Italian regions (Emilia-Romagna, Piedmont, Lazio, Campania, and Sicily) and the National Institute of Health in the period 2010-2013. SESPIR was funded by the Ministry of Health as part of the National centre for diseases prevention and control (CCM) programme of 2010 with the general objective to provide methods and operational tools for the implementation of surveillance systems for waste and health, aimed at assessing the impact of the municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment cycle on the health of the population. The specific objective was to assess health impacts resulting from the presence of disposal facilities related to different regional scenarios of waste management. Suitable tools for analysis of integrated assessment of environmental and health impact were developed and applied, using current demographic, environmental and health data. In this article, the methodology used for the quantitative estimation of the impact on the health of populations living nearby incinerators, landfills and mechanical biolog ical treatment plants is showed, as well as the analysis of three different temporal scenarios: the first related to the existing plants in the period 2008-2009 (baseline), the second based on regional plans, the latter referring to MSW virtuous policy management based on reduction of produced waste and an intense recovery policy. Source

The Cassia-Monte Mario railway tunnel, which runs through a hill in the northern part of Rome (Italy), has required invert demolition and reconstruction. The tunnel crosses heterogeneous sandy and silty soils below the water table. In order to prevent the ingress of water, the ground freezing technique was applied. The paper describes the design predictions based on simplified thermal analyses, laboratory tests and real-scale trial fields which were performed to integrate and validate the design predictions. Field tests were supported by automatic monitoring system implemented to measure the temperatures in the ground and deformation effects induced by freezing on the lining. The paper focuses on the role played by field tests which gave a decisive contribution to the correct and effective planning of the execution phase. This allowed to reach a better insight into the application of the ground freezing for underground works. Source

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