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Genova, Italy

Rossi A.,S.G. Moscati Hospital | Maione P.,S.G. Moscati Hospital | Bareschino M.A.,S.G. Moscati Hospital | Schettino C.,S.G. Moscati Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2010

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), accounting for about 85% of all lung cancers, includes squamous carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated large cell carcinoma. The majority of patients have advanced disease at diagnosis, and medical treatment is the cornerstone of management. Several randomized trials comparing third-generation platinum-based doublets concluded that all such combinations are comparable in their clinical efficacy, failing to document a difference based on histology. However, recent evidences, arising from the availability of pemetrexed, have shown that histology represents an important variable in the decision making. The major progresses in the understanding cancer biology and mechanism of oncogenesis have allowed the development of several potential molecular targets for cancer treatment such as vascular growth factor and its receptors and epidermal growth factor receptor. Targeted drugs seem to be safer or more effective in a specific histology subtype. All of these data have led to choose the optimal first-line treatment of advanced NSCLC based on histologic diagnosis. However, this scenario raises a diagnostic issue: a specific diagnosis of NSCLC histologic subtype is mandatory. This review will discuss these new evidences in the first-line treatment of advanced NSCLC and their implication in the current clinical decision-making. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Source

Leveque X.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Leveque X.,Nantes University Hospital Center | Leveque X.,University of Nantes | Cozzi E.,Direzione Sanitaria | And 6 more authors.
Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation | Year: 2011

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cell therapy is a promising strategy for tissue repair in the central nervous system. In this perspective, several cell types are being considered, including allogenic neuroblasts, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. The use of allogenic neuroblasts as cell source is limited by logistics and ethical problems whereas transplantation of the last two cell types is hampered by their propensity to generate tumour. In this context, transplantation of xenogeneic neural cells appears as an attractive approach for effective neuronal replacement in case of neurodegenerative disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: With the emergence of embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells as potential cell source in regenerative medicine, little attention has been paid to the possibility of transplanting xenogenic neural cells in the central nervous system. However, recent progress to circumvent the host immune response in the brain has raised encouraging perspectives for intracerebral xenotransplantation as restorative strategy. SUMMARY: To date, most of the immunosuppressive strategies designed for long-term survival of intracerebral neural transplants were based on systemic immunosuppression that has detrimental side-effects. The immunological status of the brain and the presence of the blood-brain barrier raise the possibility of local immunosuppression. This article provides an overview of the strategies recently developed to protect intracerebral neural transplants with special focus on local immunosuppression. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Marigo I.,University of Padua | Bosio E.,University of Padua | Solito S.,University of Padua | Dolcetti L.,Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine | And 11 more authors.
Immunity | Year: 2010

Tumor growth is associated with a profound alteration in myelopoiesis, leading to recruitment of immunosuppressive cells known as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). We showed that among factors produced by various experimental tumors, the cytokines GM-CSF, G-CSF, and IL-6 allowed a rapid generation of MDSCs from precursors present in mouse and human bone marrow (BM). BM-MDSCs induced by GM-CSF+IL-6 possessed the highest tolerogenic activity, as revealed by the ability to impair the priming of CD8+ T cells and allow long term acceptance of pancreatic islet allografts. Cytokines inducing MDSCs acted on a common molecular pathway and the immunoregulatory activity of both tumor-induced and BM-derived MDSCs was entirely dependent on the C/EBPβ transcription factor. Adoptive transfer of tumor antigen-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes resulted in therapy of established tumors only in mice lacking C/EBPβ in the myeloid compartment, suggesting that C/EBPβ is a critical regulator of the immunosuppressive environment created by growing cancers. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

Busby S.-A.,Glasgow Caledonian University | Crossan C.,Glasgow Caledonian University | Godwin J.,Glasgow Caledonian University | Petersen B.,Friedrich Loeffler Institute | And 5 more authors.
Xenotransplantation | Year: 2013

The hepatitis E virus (HEV) is considered a zoonotic pathogen. In xenotransplantation, given the high prevalence of HEV infection in pigs, the risk of zoonotic transmission from a porcine source is considered high. Currently no clear data are available on how to diagnose and eliminate HEV in herds used for medical purposes and the importance of viral infection at the stage of harvest. In this study, several groups of animals currently used for medical purposes were found RNA positive in both serum and faeces for HEV genotype 3. In addition, viraemia was found in animals up to 3.6 yr of age, which is much longer than originally expected. Herd transmission rates appeared to be significantly lower in animals kept under minimal barrier conditions, compared with those observed for commercial animals, and as expected, segregation of animals at an early age prevented spread of infection. This study makes suggestions to ensure appropriate detection and eradication of HEV from a donor herd to be used for xenotransplantation purposes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

In Italy, the hospital departmental model was introduced over 30 years ago with the aim of fostering collaboration between wards and promoting the appropriate use of resources. However, these objectives have not been consistently met. For this reason, the Strategic Direction of the hospital "Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico" in Milan has proposed a new model in which department directors are given a more active role in hospital management and actively participate in decision-making processes. Source

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