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Fernandez-Navarro P.,Carlos III Institute of Health | Fernandez-Navarro P.,Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology and Public Health | Pita G.,Human Genotyping Unit CeGen | Santamarina C.,Regional Authority of Health | And 14 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013

Background: Mammographic density (MD) is regarded as an intermediate phenotype in breast cancer development. This association study investigated the influence of 14 breast cancer susceptibility loci identified through previous genome-wide association studies on MD among the participants in the "Determinants of Density in Mammographies in Spain" (DDM-Spain) study. Methods: Our study covered a total of 3348 Caucasian women aged 45-68 years, recruited from seven Spanish breast cancer screening centres having DNA available. Mammographic density was blindly assessed by a single reader using a semiquantitative scale. Ordinal logistic models, adjusted for age, body mass index and menopausal status, were used to estimate the association between each genotype and MD. Results: Evidence of association with MD was found for variant rs3803662 (TOX3) (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.13, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.03-1.25), and marginal evidence of association for susceptibility loci rs3817198 (LSP1) (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.00-1.20) and rs2981582 (FGFR2) (OR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.84-1.01). Two other loci were associated with MD solely among pre-menopausal women, namely, rs4973768 (SLC4A7) (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.70-1.00) and rs4415084 (MEPS30) (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.00-1.49). Conclusions: Our findings lend some support to the hypothesis which links these susceptibility loci to MD. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Domingo L.,IMIM Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute | Salas D.,General Directorate Public Health | Salas D.,Center for Public Health Research | Zubizarreta R.,Directorate for innovation and management of public health | And 49 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research | Year: 2014

Introduction: Interval cancers are tumors arising after a negative screening episode and before the next screening invitation. They can be classified into true interval cancers, false-negatives, minimal-sign cancers, and occult tumors based on mammographic findings in screening and diagnostic mammograms. This study aimed to describe tumor-related characteristics and the association of breast density and tumor phenotype within four interval cancer categories.Methods: We included 2,245 invasive tumors (1,297 screening-detected and 948 interval cancers) diagnosed from 2000 to 2009 among 645,764 women aged 45 to 69 who underwent biennial screening in Spain. Interval cancers were classified by a semi-informed retrospective review into true interval cancers (n = 455), false-negatives (n = 224), minimal-sign (n = 166), and occult tumors (n = 103). Breast density was evaluated using Boyd's scale and was conflated into: <25%; 25 to 50%; 50 to 75%; >75%. Tumor-related information was obtained from cancer registries and clinical records. Tumor phenotype was defined as follows: luminal A: ER+/HER2- or PR+/HER2-; luminal B: ER+/HER2+ or PR+/HER2+; HER2: ER-/PR-/HER2+; triple-negative: ER-/PR-/HER2- The association of tumor phenotype and breast density was assessed using a multinomial logistic regression model. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. All statistical tests were two-sided.Results: Forty-eight percent of interval cancers were true interval cancers and 23.6% false-negatives. True interval cancers were associated with HER2 and triple-negative phenotypes (OR = 1.91 (95% CI:1.22-2.96), OR = 2.07 (95% CI:1.42-3.01), respectively) and extremely dense breasts (>75%) (OR = 1.67 (95% CI:1.08-2.56)). However, among true interval cancers a higher proportion of triple-negative tumors was observed in predominantly fatty breasts (<25%) than in denser breasts (28.7%, 21.4%, 11.3% and 14.3%, respectively; <0.001). False-negatives and occult tumors had similar phenotypic characteristics to screening-detected cancers, extreme breast density being strongly associated with occult tumors (OR = 6.23 (95% CI:2.65-14.66)). Minimal-sign cancers were biologically close to true interval cancers but showed no association with breast density.Conclusions: Our findings revealed that both the distribution of tumor phenotype and breast density play specific and independent roles in each category of interval cancer. Further research is needed to understand the biological basis of the overrepresentation of triple-negative phenotype among predominantly fatty breasts in true interval cancers. © 2014 Domingo et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Garcia-Arenzana N.,Hospital Universitario Infanta Sofia | Garcia-Arenzana N.,Institute Salud Carlos III | Navarrete-Munoz E.M.,University Miguel Hernández | Navarrete-Munoz E.M.,Institute Salud Carlos III | And 21 more authors.
Menopause | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVE: A healthy diet is particularly important during menopause, a period in which the risk of a number of health problems increases. This study analyzed diet quality as measured by two indices, namely, the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) and the Alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED) index, which measures adherence to a Mediterranean diet, and examined the factors associated with lower diet quality. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study covering 3,564 women aged 45 to 68 years who underwent breast cancer screening at 7 centers (Corunna, Barcelona, Burgos, Palma de Mallorca, Pamplona, Valencia, and Zaragoza). Data on diet were collected using a food frequency questionnaire validated for the Spanish population. We calculated the AHEI out of a total of 80 points and the aMED out of a total of 9 points. Ordinal logistic regression models were fitted, taking diet quality (tertiles of the AHEI and the aMED) as dependent variables. The following were included in the final multivariate models as explanatory variables: sociodemographic characteristics, chronic diseases, and lifestyles that were associated with diet quality, with a P value <0.100 in an initial simple model (adjusted solely for calorie intake and screening center). Interaction between menopause status and the other explanatory variables was checked. RESULTS: The median score for AHEI was 40 of a maximum of 80 points. Lower diet quality was registered by the youngest women (P for trend < 0.001), premenopausal and perimenopausal women (odds ratio [OR], 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.56; and OR, 1.48; CI, 1.20-1.83, respectively), obese women (OR, 1.18; CI, 0.99-1.41), those with a diagnosis of diabetes (OR, 1.35; CI, 1.01-1.79), smokers (OR, 1.41; CI, 1.21-1.66), and women reporting lower daily physical activity (OR, 1.31; CI, 1.12-1.53). Better diet quality was shown by women with higher education (OR, 0.74; CI, 0.62-0.88) and ex-smokers (OR, 0.82; CI, 0.69-0.98). Nulliparity was associated with higher AHEI scores, but only among premenopausal women (OR, 0.50; CI, 0.32-0.78). aMED index varied between 0 and 9 (median 5). Lower scores were associated with younger age (P for trend < 0.001), low socioeconomic level (OR, 1.13; CI, 0.96-1.33), lower educational level (P for trend = 0.008), and low level of daily physical activity (OR, 1.27, CI, 1.08-1.50). CONCLUSIONS: The youngest women, the most sedentary women, and those who had a lower educational level and socioeconomic status registered worse diet quality. Ex-smokers and postmenopausal women obtained better scores, probably reflecting a keener concern about leading a healthy life. © 2012 by The North American Menopause Society.

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