Directorate of Water Management ICAR

Bhubaneshwar, India

Directorate of Water Management ICAR

Bhubaneshwar, India
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Mandal K.G.,Directorate of Water Management ICAR | Baral U.,Utkal University | Padhi J.,Directorate of Water Management ICAR | Majhi P.,Directorate of Water Management ICAR | And 2 more authors.
Regional Environmental Change | Year: 2012

The agricultural production systems leading to loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) might be contributing to release of CO 2 into the atmosphere. Therefore, an attempt was made to assess the organic carbon stock in the soil profile and related soil properties under different cropping systems like rice-fallow, rice-groundnut, rice-potato, rice-rice, mango and guava orchard in the Deras command in Odisha province, India. Analyses on particle size distribution and pH revealed that soil was sandy loam to sandy clay loam and acidic in nature. The bulk density ranged from 1.54 to 1.79 Mg m -3 depending on the soil depth and cropping system; it was lower in the soils of mango and guava orchards. Available water capacity of soils was significantly highest in the rice-rice system in almost every soil depths except in the 0-15-cm layer. The SOC stock was highest within 0-15-cm soil and gradually decreased with increase in depth in each land use systems. In 0-15 cm depth, highest SOC stock (16.80 Mg ha -1) was estimated in rice-fallow system and the lowest (11.81 Mg ha -1) in the soils of guava orchard. In 15-30 cm, it ranged from 8.74 in rice-rice system to 16.08 Mg ha -1 in mango orchard. In the 30-45-cm soil depth, the SOC stock ranged from 6.41 in rice-potato to 15.71 Mg ha -1 in rice-fallow system. The total SOC stock within the 0-60-cm soil profile ranged from 33.68 to 59.10 Mg ha -1 among rice-based systems, highest being in soils under rice-fallow system and the lowest for rice-rice system. The mango and guava orchard soils had 68.53 and 54.71 Mg ha -1 of SOC, respectively, in the 0-90-cm soil depth. The change of SOC stock due to continuous cropping was positive in every land use systems; however, the increase was the highest in rice-fallow system followed by mango orchard. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Panda D.K.,Directorate of Water Management ICAR | Mishra A.,Directorate of Water Management ICAR | Kumar A.,Directorate of Water Management ICAR
Hydrological Sciences Journal | Year: 2012

The patterns in groundwater level, rainfall and temperature extremes for the western Indian state of Gujarat were examined using water-table records of 555 monitoring wells and daily rainfall and maximum temperature data sets for the period 1995-2005. The results reveal a large number of declining trends in groundwater levels with notable spatial structures; these are unlikely to be associated with the natural climate variability. There is also a noticeable increase in the temperature and rainfall extremes. Our results suggest that the groundwater withdrawal has increased, perhaps due to recurrent droughts and increases in temperature, and this has caused widespread water-table decline that has not been countered by rainfall extremes. Rainfall extremes appear to have caused greater runoff losses in the humid and sub-humid coastal regions, whereas the aquifers of the arid and semi-arid northern regions are more vulnerable to droughts and the warming environment.Editor D. Koutsoyiannis; Associate editor K. HamedCitation Panda, D.K, Mishra, A., and Kumar, A., 2012. Trend quantification in groundwater levels of Gujarat in western India. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 57 (7), 1325-1336. © 2012 Copyright 2012 IAHS Press.

Panda D.K.,Directorate of Water Management ICAR | Kumar A.,Directorate of Water Management ICAR | Ghosh S.,Directorate of Water Management ICAR | Mohanty R.K.,Directorate of Water Management ICAR
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2013

Mahanadi River basin is one of the recognized climatic vulnerable regions of India. Recent occurrences of the extreme climatic events in this basin underscore the importance of evaluating the trend and variability of hydroclimatic variables in order to understand the potential impact of future change. In this study, the monthly streamflow data for the period 1972-2007 and the daily rainfall data for the period 1972-2005 have been analyzed using the Mann-Kendall nonparametric test after removing serial correlation. The results reveal a substantial spatial and subseasonal difference in the monsoon season streamflow and rainfall patterns, with a predominance of the increasing trends in June and decreasing trends in August. However, a marked increase is observed in the streamflow and rainfall of the pre- and post-monsoon season. The correlation coefficients show a direct correspondence of the rainfall and streamflow series with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which is contrary to the established inverse relationship over India. The noteworthy feature of this study is the observed climate uncertainty in terms of large variability in the extreme indices since the 1990s, consistent with the warming induced intensification of the hydrological cycle. Strong evidences have emerged regarding the basin-wide increases in extreme rainfall indices. In particular, the coastal sector of the basin is more vulnerable to the heavy rainfall, whereas the southern Eastern Ghats region is susceptible to the moisture stress. The discharge at the basin outlet has declined at a rate of 3388×106m3decade?1, suggesting the need of environmental flow assessment. The results of this study would help the reservoir managers and policy makers in planning and management of water resources of the Mahanadi River basin. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Panda D.K.,Directorate of Water Management ICAR | Kumar A.,Directorate of Water Management ICAR | Singandhupe R.B.,Directorate of Water Management ICAR | Sahoo N.,Directorate of Water Management ICAR
International Journal of Climatology | Year: 2013

In this study, the hydroclimatic variables of Orissa, a tropical region in eastern India, and the cyclonic disturbances over the Bay of Bengal were analysed to assess trends and variations using nonparametric statistical procedures. The trend results revealed pronounced warming pattern in the monthly maximum temperatures and cooling pattern in the monthly minimum temperatures for the period 1987-2001. The differential forcing mechanisms of greenhouse gases and aerosols were considered as a reason for the temperature extremes. For the period 1960-2003, significant upward shift was observed in June rainfall, particularly over the region where orography influences the rainfall. This study provides strong evidence suggesting the occurrence of abrupt shifts in the cyclonic disturbances over the Bay of Bengal. For the period 1901-2003, the monsoon depressions and cyclonic storms, which contribute a substantial amount of rainfall in Orissa and central India, exhibited significant downward abrupt shifts during 1971 and 1950, respectively. However, severe cyclonic storms in the post-monsoon season showed significant upward shift during the 1961-1965 pentad. More cases of non-significant decreasing trends were observed in the monsoon rainfall for the period 1980-2003 in spite of high inter-annual variability. These trends may be attributed to the significant downward shift in the monsoon depression from 1983 onwards analysed for the period 1960-2003. Results also show that the observed trends are highly sensitive to the season of analysis and the period of records. © 2012 Royal Meteorological Society.

Panda D.K.,Directorate of Water Management ICAR | Kumar A.,Directorate of Water Management ICAR | Mohanty S.,Directorate of Water Management ICAR
Global and Planetary Change | Year: 2011

The tropical river basins of India are important because of the coastal ecosystem that they sustain and the densely populated economic zones that they serve. This study examines the recent trends in sediment load and also explores the influence of the climatic and human forcing mechanisms on the land-ocean fluvial systems. A large dataset comprised of the sediment time series of different timescale during the period 1986-87 to 2005-06 from 133 gauging stations spreading across tropical river basins of India was analyzed. Results indicate dramatic reductions in sediment load in the tropical river basins, which is beyond the fold of assignable natural variability. Around 88% (62%) of the total 133 gauging stations showed decline in sediment loads in the monsoon (non-monsoon) season. The significant downward trends outnumbered the corresponding upward trends in high proportions for both the seasons. Striking spatial coherence was observed among the significant trends, suggesting the presence of the cross-correlation among the sediment records. The regional trends, which account the spatial correlation, also indicated the widespread nature of the sediment declines. The rainfall, which is characterized by the non-significant decreasing trends and also frequent drought years, is the primary controller of the sediment loads for most of the river basins. It may be inferred that a little change in rainfall towards the deficit side leads to a significant reduction in sediment load. This is due to the diversion and storage of runoff to meet the manifold increases in water requirements for the agriculture and industry. Among the tropical rivers, the maximum reduction in sediment flux has taken place for the Normada River (-2.07×106t/yr) due to the construction of dam. Although the sea level is rising, we speculate that the significant reduction in sediment loads may also have influenced the coastal erosion in recent years. The results of this study can be utilized for the sustainable management of the tropical river basins in the backdrop of a predicted erratic monsoon rainfall and the growing anthropogenic stresses. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Panda D.K.,Directorate of Water Management ICAR | Kumar A.,Directorate of Water Management ICAR
Hydrological Sciences Journal | Year: 2011

This study evaluates an over-exploited aquifer (Balasor, India) and also explores the possibilities of sustainable management using several statistical approaches. First, bootstrap analysis indicates that groundwater pumping has resulted in the reduction of mean cultivated area as the average irrigation capacity per bore well dropped from 3.74 ha to 1.5 ha within a period of 10 years of operation. However, modelling the groundwater levels using the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) procedure showed no evidence of large-scale groundwater withdrawals. The derived models can be used for water table forecasting and also for infilling the missing observations. The empirical relationship among pumping test results indicated that well depth and aquifer thickness significantly influence the discharge from the aquifer. This discharge may have encouraged the resource-rich farmers to exploit the lower aquifer. Based on a contour plot, the zone of groundwater exploitation was estimated to vary from 25 to 60 m below the surface. Therefore, a uniform aquifer exploitation policy needs to be implemented to curb the vertical competition in exploiting the aquifer and to develop sustainable management of the groundwater. © 2011 IAHS Press.

Mishra A.,Directorate of Water Management ICAR | Ghosh S.,Directorate of Water Management ICAR | Mohanty R.K.,Directorate of Water Management ICAR | Brahamand P.S.,Directorate of Water Management ICAR
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2013

Performance of a rehabilitated and turned over flow based minor irrigation project with respect to irrigation, agriculture and institutional aspects was assessed. The irrigation system was found performing better. However, inadequacy of irrigation water availability in dry season and spatial inequity of water distribution, even after rehabilitation and irrigation management transfer were the couple of shortcomings which have been observed. In order to augment the water resource of the system, the feasibility of introducing secondary storage reservoir in each outlet command was conceptualized and field tested. Keeping in view the area required for providing secondary reservoirs, the existing water bodies in the command of the study system were surveyed. The utility and functioning of the secondary reservoir was field demonstrated. Utilization of the harvested water in the secondary reservoir for irrigating dry season crop in addition to the irrigation water from the main reservoir have resulted in increasing the yield of sunflower, tomato, brinjal and groundnut by 14.29, 14.95, 16.95 and 20%, respectively. Among the cropping patterns considered, rice-tomato cropping pattern resulted in highest net return (Rs. 29,457 per ha) followed by rice-brinjal cropping pattern (Rs. 22,430 per ha). Highest benefit-cost ratio of 2.09 was obtained for rice-sunflower cropping system. The low input-based scientific fish culture in the secondary storage reservoir has enhanced the fish yield by three fold over traditional practice. © 2013 Elsevier B.V..

Kar G.,Directorate of Water Management ICAR | Kumar A.,Directorate of Water Management ICAR | Sahoo N.,Directorate of Water Management ICAR | Mohapatra S.,Directorate of Water Management ICAR
Paddy and Water Environment | Year: 2014

To study the radiation utilization efficiency, latent heat flux, and simulate growth of rice during post-flood period in eastern coast of India, on-farm trial was conducted with three water regimes in main plots (W 1 = continuous flooding of 5 cm, W 2 = irrigation after 2 days of water disappearance, and W 3 = irrigation after 5 days of water disappearance) and five nitrogen levels in subplots (N 1 = 0 kg N ha-1, N 2 = 60 kg N ha-1, N 3 = 90 kg N ha-1, N 4 = 120 kg N ha-1, and N 5 = 150 kg N ha-1) on a rice cultivar, 'Lalat'. Average maximum radiation utilization efficiency (RUE) in terms of above ground dry biomass of 2.09 (±0.05), 2.10 (±0.02), and 1.9 (±0.08) g MJ-1 were computed under W 1, W 2, and W 3, respectively. Nitrogen increased the RUE significantly, mean RUE values were computed as 1.60 (±0.07), 1.78 (±0.02), 2.060 (±0.08), 2.30 (±0.07), and 2.34 (±0.08) g MJ-1 when the crop was grown with 0, 60, 90, 120, and 150 kg ha-1 nitrogen, respectively. Midday average latent heat flux (on clear days) varied from 7.4 to 14.9 and 8 to 13.6 MJ m-2 day-1 under W 2 and W 3 treatments, respectively, at different growth stages of the crop in different seasons. The DSSAT 4.5 model was used to simulate phenology, growth, and yield which predicted fairly well under higher dose of nitrogen (90 kg and above), but the model performance was found to be poor under low-nitrogen dose. © 2013 Springer Japan.

Mishra A.,Directorate of Water Management ICAR | James B.K.,Directorate of Water Management ICAR | Mohanty R.K.,Directorate of Water Management ICAR | Anand P.S.B.,Directorate of Water Management ICAR
Paddy and Water Environment | Year: 2014

A two-stage rainwater conservation technique was intervened in the farmers field of rainfed shallow low land, in which, part of the rainwater is conserved in rice field up to the weir crest level and the remaining in a refuge for rearing of fish (Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala and Cyprinus carpio). The conserved rainwater in the refuge is also used for giving supplemental irrigation to rice crop during rainy season and growing a light duty crop in winter season. On-farm experiment was conducted in the farmer's field for three consecutive years to study the scope and feasibility of this technique in enhancing productivity and cropping intensity. Three different weir heights (15, 20 and 25 cm) were considered as treatments with two replications each. Refuge occupying areas of 5-8 % of the rice field with a depth of 1.75 m were constructed at the downstream side of each plot. As a result of this intervention, the mono-cropped area could be gradually brought under double cropping. The rice yield increased from 1.8 to 5.3 t/ha. Fish yield of as high as 1,693 kg/ha was obtained for a fish rearing period of about 6 months. The net water productivity increased from 3.76 to 7.38 Rs./m3. The highest net return of Rs. 63,572 was recorded in 20 cm weir height plots with a benefit cost ratio of 2.60. The system generated employment opportunity, increased income for farmers and provided nutritional security. © 2013 Springer Japan.

Das M.,Directorate of Water Management ICAR
Fresenius Environmental Bulletin | Year: 2013

Water quality monitoring is a matter of utmost importance to maintain the quality of potable sources in rapidly growing areas. Recognizing the factors that have an impact on the quality of water source is vital. To assess the impact of population growth on groundwater quality for drinking, a study was undertaken in a capital city of eastern India. Based on density of residents, the study area was grouped into five clusters; covering all clusters a sum of fifty-eight samples from drinking water sources was collected and characterized by relevant water quality parameters. The nonparametric Kruskal - Wallis % 2 was significant for all the parameters and a transition of N0 3and K from densely to sparsely inhabited area had become evident from multi-comparison test and subsequently denoted the effect of population density on drinking water quality parameters in the study area. © by PSP.

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