Entity

Time filter

Source Type


Kerschbaumer G.,Medical University of Vienna | Wernsdorfer G.,Mahidol University | Wiedermann U.,Medical University of Vienna | Congpuong K.,Directorate of Vector Borne Diseases | And 2 more authors.
Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift | Year: 2010

Following the advent of mefloquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in Thailand in the 1990s, the combined treatment of falciparum malaria with artesunate and mefloquine was found to be highly effective in treating and curing the patients in the affected areas. Monitoring of the clinical-parasitological response and of the in vitro sensitivity of P. falciparum was systematically conducted in order to detect any signs of failure of this type of artemisinin-based combination treatment (ACT). In earlier observations the in vitro activity of artemisinin was found to be significantly enhanced when combined with retinol. The same applies to mefloquine. In order to check whether the synergism between artemisinin and mefloquine was maintained in the presence of retinol, the pharmacodynamic interaction of the three compounds was investigated in the western border area of Thailand. Successful parallel tests with mefloquine, artemisinin, retinol, mefloquine-artemisinin 5:1 as well as mefloquine-artemisinin (5:1) + retinol low, medium and high were obtained with 43 fresh parasite isolates. The retinol concentrations in the low, medium and high formulations corresponded to the 50th, 65th and 80th percentile of the physiological mean concentrations in the blood of healthy adults. The IC50, IC90 and IC99 values for mefloquine alone showed a further increase over the data of 2008. In the combinations with artemisinin and retinol moderate synergism was observed at the IC50, but synergism increased strongly at the IC90 and the IC99. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source


Elyazar I.R.F.,Eijkman Oxford Clinical Research Unit | Gething P.W.,University of Oxford | Patil A.P.,University of Oxford | Rogayah H.,Directorate of Vector Borne Diseases | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Plasmodium vivax imposes substantial morbidity and mortality burdens in endemic zones. Detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of this parasite is needed to combat it. We used model based geostatistics (MBG) techniques to generate a contemporary map of risk of Plasmodium vivax malaria in Indonesia in 2010. Methods: Plasmodium vivax Annual Parasite Incidence data (2006-2008) and temperature masks were used to map P. vivax transmission limits. A total of 4,658 community surveys of P. vivax parasite rate (PvPR) were identified (1985-2010) for mapping quantitative estimates of contemporary endemicity within those limits. After error-checking a total of 4,457 points were included into a national database of age-standardized 1-99 year old PvPR data. A Bayesian MBG procedure created a predicted PvPR1-99 endemicity surface with uncertainty estimates. Population at risk estimates were derived with reference to a 2010 human population surface. Results: We estimated 129.6 million people in Indonesia lived at risk of P. vivax transmission in 2010. Among these, 79.3% inhabited unstable transmission areas and 20.7% resided in stable transmission areas. In western Indonesia, the predicted P. vivax prevalence was uniformly low. Over 70% of the population at risk in this region lived on Java and Bali islands, where little malaria transmission occurs. High predicted prevalence areas were observed in the Lesser Sundas, Maluku and Papua. In general, prediction uncertainty was relatively low in the west and high in the east. Conclusion: Most Indonesians living with endemic P. vivax experience relatively low risk of infection. However, blood surveys for this parasite are likely relatively insensitive and certainly do not detect the dormant liver stage reservoir of infection. The prospects for P. vivax elimination would be improved with deeper understanding of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd) distribution, anti-relapse therapy practices and manageability of P. vivax importation risk, especially in Java and Bali. © 2012 Elyazar et al. Source


Elyazar I.R.F.,Eijkman Oxford Clinical Research Unit | Gething P.W.,University of Oxford | Patil A.P.,University of Oxford | Rogayah H.,Directorate of Vector Borne Diseases | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Malaria control programs require a detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of infection risk to efficiently allocate resources. We used model based geostatistics (MBG) techniques to generate a contemporary map of Plasmodium falciparum malaria risk in Indonesia in 2010. Methods: Plasmodium falciparum Annual Parasite Incidence (PfAPI) data (2006-2008) were used to map limits of P. falciparum transmission. A total of 2,581 community blood surveys of P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) were identified (1985-2009). After quality control, 2,516 were included into a national database of age-standardized 2-10 year old PfPR data (PfPR2-10) for endemicity mapping. A Bayesian MBG procedure was used to create a predicted surface of PfPR2-10 endemicity with uncertainty estimates. Population at risk estimates were derived with reference to a 2010 human population count surface. Results: We estimate 132.8 million people in Indonesia, lived at risk of P. falciparum transmission in 2010. Of these, 70.3% inhabited areas of unstable transmission and 29.7% in stable transmission. Among those exposed to stable risk, the vast majority were at low risk (93.39%) with the reminder at intermediate (6.6%) and high risk (0.01%). More people in western Indonesia lived in unstable rather than stable transmission zones. In contrast, fewer people in eastern Indonesia lived in unstable versus stable transmission areas. Conclusion: While further feasibility assessments will be required, the immediate prospects for sustained control are good across much of the archipelago and medium term plans to transition to the pre-elimination phase are not unrealistic for P. falciparum. Endemicity in areas of Papua will clearly present the greatest challenge. This P. falciparum endemicity map allows malaria control agencies and their partners to comprehensively assess the region-specific prospects for reaching pre-elimination, monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of future strategies against this 2010 baseline and ultimately improve their evidence-based malaria control strategies. © 2011 Elyazar et al. Source

Discover hidden collaborations