Directorate of Soybean Research

Indore, India

Directorate of Soybean Research

Indore, India
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Dixit A.K.,Devi Ahilya University | Bhatnagar D.,Devi Ahilya University | Kumar V.,Directorate of Soybean Research | Chawla D.,Cancer Hospital | Fakhruddin K.,Cancer Hospital
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2012

The in vitro antioxidant potential and in vivo radioprotective ability of soy isoflavones was studied. Male Wistar rats were orally administered with soybean isoflavones (60. mg/kg) for 21. days followed by gamma irradiation exposure. Survival studies in rats exposed at 10. Gy and endogenous spleen colony forming unit assay (CFU) at 6.0. Gy were performed in order to find radioprotective and immunomodulatory nature of the compound. The rat liver post mitochondrial supernatant and erythrocytes were used to measure lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione (GSH) content along with various antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) after gamma irradiation exposure at 2.0. Gy. Pretreatment with soy isoflavone, prior to gamma irradiation resulted in the increased survival rate of the animals as compared to irradiated group. CFU counts in the isoflavone treated group followed by gamma irradiation at 6 Gy were significantly high as compared to control and the irradiated group, showing immunomodulatory nature of the isoflavones. Pretreatment with isoflavones also significantly reduced the LPO, enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes and improved haematological and histological parameters. The present study suggests that supplementation with isoflavone has potent antioxidant activity and act as probable radioprotector against gamma radiation induced oxidative damage. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Sharma M.P.,Directorate of Soybean Research | Buyer J.S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Applied Soil Ecology | Year: 2015

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are well-known plant symbionts which provide enhanced phosphorus uptake as well as other benefits to their host plants. Quantification of mycorrhizal density and root colonization has traditionally been performed by root staining and microscopic examination methods, which are time-consuming, laborious, and difficult to reproduce between laboratories. A number of biochemical markers for estimating mycorrhizal hyphae and spores have been published. In this study we grew maize plants in three different soils in a replicated greenhouse experiment and compared the results from two microscopic methods, spore density and root colonization, to the results from three lipid biomarker methods: neutral lipid fatty acid, phospholipid fatty acid, and ester-linked fatty acid analysis. Ester-linked fatty acid analysis gave consistent results for both spore density and root colonization, but neutral lipid fatty acid analysis had the highest correlation to AMF spore counts. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis was not correlated to spore density and did not reproducibly correlate to root colonization. © 2015.

Kumawat G.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Kumawat G.,Directorate of Soybean Research | Raje R.S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Bhutani S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
BMC Genetics | Year: 2012

Background: Pigeonpea is an important grain legume of the semi-arid tropics and sub-tropical regions where it plays a crucial role in the food and nutritional security of the people. The average productivity of pigeonpea has remained very low and stagnant for over five decades due to lack of genomic information and intensive breeding efforts. Previous SSR-based linkage maps of pigeonpea used inter-specific crosses due to low inter-varietal polymorphism. Here our aim was to construct a high density intra-specific linkage map using genic-SNP markers for mapping of major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for key agronomic traits, including plant height, number of primary and secondary branches, number of pods, days to flowering and days to maturity in pigeonpea.Results: A population of 186 F2:3 lines derived from an intra-specific cross between inbred lines 'Pusa Dwarf' and 'HDM04-1' was used to construct a dense molecular linkage map of 296 genic SNP and SSR markers covering a total adjusted map length of 1520.22 cM for the 11 chromosomes of the pigeonpea genome. This is the first dense intra-specific linkage map of pigeonpea with the highest genome length coverage. Phenotypic data from the F2:3 families were used to identify thirteen QTLs for the six agronomic traits. The proportion of phenotypic variance explained by the individual QTLs ranged from 3.18% to 51.4%. Ten of these QTLs were clustered in just two genomic regions, indicating pleiotropic effects or close genetic linkage. In addition to the main effects, significant epistatic interaction effects were detected between the QTLs for number of pods per plant.Conclusions: A large amount of information on transcript sequences, SSR markers and draft genome sequence is now available for pigeonpea. However, there is need to develop high density linkage maps and identify genes/QTLs for important agronomic traits for practical breeding applications. This is the first report on identification of QTLs for plant type and maturity traits in pigeonpea. The QTLs identified in this study provide a strong foundation for further validation and fine mapping for utilization in the pigeonpea improvement. © 2012 Kumawat et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Ryan P.R.,CSIRO | Raman H.,Wagga Wagga Agricultural Institute | Gupta S.,CSIRO | Gupta S.,Directorate of Soybean Research | And 3 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2010

Acid soils limit plant production worldwide because their high concentrations of soluble aluminium cations (Al3+) inhibit root growth. Major food crops such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) have evolved mechanisms to resist Al3+ toxicity, thus enabling wider distribution. The origins of Al3+ resistance in wheat are perplexing because all progenitors of this hexaploid species are reportedly sensitive to Al 3+ stress. The large genotypic variation for Al3+ resistance in wheat is largely controlled by expression of an anion channel, TaALMT1, which releases malate anions from the root apices. A current hypothesis proposes that the malate anions protect this sensitive growth zone by binding to Al3+ in the apoplasm. We investigated the evolution of this trait in wheat, and demonstrated that it has multiple independent origins that enhance Al3+ resistance by increasing TaALMT1 expression. One origin is likely to be Aegilops tauschii while other origins occurred more recently from a series of cis mutations that have generated tandemly repeated elements in the TaALMT1 promoter. We generated transgenic plants to directly compare these promoter alleles and demonstrate that the tandemly repeated elements act to enhance gene expression. This study provides an example from higher eukaryotes in which perfect tandem repeats are linked with transcriptional regulation and phenotypic change in the context of evolutionary adaptation to a major abiotic stress. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Punithavalli M.,Directorate of Soybean Research | Sharma A.N.,Directorate of Soybean Research | Rajkumar M.B.,The Academy of Management
Phytoparasitica | Year: 2014

Seasonal occurrence of the common cutworm Spodoptera litura (Fab.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) moths captured in synthetic sex pheromone traps and associated field population of eggs and larvae in soybean were examined in India from 2009 to 2011. Male moths of S. litura first appeared in late July or early August and continued through October. Peak male trap catches occurred during the second fortnight of September, which was within soybean reproductive stages. Similarly, the first appearance of S. litura egg masses and larval populations were observed after the first appearance of male moths in early to mid-August, and were present in the growing season up to late September to mid-October. The peak appearance of egg masses and larval populations always corresponded with the peak activity of male moths recorded during mid-September in all years. Correlation studies showed that weekly mean trap catches were linearly and positively correlated with egg masses and larval populations during the entire growing season of soybean. Seasonal means of male moth catches in pheromone traps during the 2010 and 2011 seasons were significantly lower than the catches during the 2009 season. However, seasonal means of the egg masses and larval populations were not significantly different between years. Pheromone traps may be useful indicators of the onset of numbers of S. litura eggs and larvae in soybean fields. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Dixit A.K.,Devi Ahilya University | Bhatnagar D.,Devi Ahilya University | Kumar V.,Directorate of Soybean Research | Rani A.,Directorate of Soybean Research | Manjaya J.G.,Bhabha Atomic Research Center
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Three Indian soybean genotypes, namely, Kalitur, Hara soya and NRC37 with black, green and yellow colored seed coat respectively were gamma irradiated at a dose of 0.5, 2.0, and 5.0 kGy. The total isoflavones and total phenol content (TPC) in all the genotypes increased significantly at a dose of 0.5 and 2 kGy respectively. The anthocyanin content was high in Kalitur, while other genotypes showed no detectable amounts of it. The hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (HRSA), DPPH free radical scavenging activity (FRSA) and total antioxidant power (TAP) were highest in Kalitur with black seed coat color. However, maximum enhancement in antioxidant properties was found in NRC37 with yellow followed by Hara soya with green seed coat color at a dose of 0.5 and 2.0 kGy. It was also observed that the 3 soybean genotypes showed an increase in antioxidant constituents and antioxidative properties at lower doses of 0.5 and 2.0 kGy while, the antioxidant effects of soy seeds were either decreased or remained constant at a higher dose of 5.0 kGy. It is suggested that mild gamma irradiation enhanced the antioxidant constituents and, hence, antioxidant potential of soybean seeds. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Gupta G.K.,Directorate of Soybean Research | Sharma S.K.,Directorate of Soybean Research | Ramteke R.,Directorate of Soybean Research
Journal of Phytopathology | Year: 2012

The fungus Macrophomina phaseolina is a causative agent of diseases in more than 500 plant species. The fungus is primarily soil-inhabiting but is also seed-borne in many crops including soybean. It survives in the soil mainly as microsclerotia that germinate repeatedly during the crop-growing season. Low C:N ratio in the soil and high bulk density as well as high soil moisture content adversely affect the survival of sclerotia. The disease can be managed to some extent by cultural practices, organic amendments, seed treatment and genetic host resistance. The scattered literature on these aspects is reviewed in this paper. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Kuchlan P.,Directorate of Soybean Research | Husain S.M.,Directorate of Soybean Research | Chauhan G.S.,Directorate of Soybean Research
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2010

Variability in seed quality traits associated with seed longevity was studied during 2005 for 15 soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) cultivars of 3 different seed sizes, small ('ADTl', 'Col', 'Indira Soya 9', 'MAUS 32' and 'JS 90-41'), medium ('JS 335', 'JS 71-05', 'MAUS 47', 'NRC 37' and 'Bragg') and bold type ('JS 9305', 'NRC 7', 'PS 1024', 'PS 1029' and 'MAUS 61-2') under accelerated ageing condition at 90% relative humidity and 42°C temperature. Soil emergence, seed coat rupture force, water imbibition kinetics, reduction in germination due to stress were observed because these are directly or indirectly related with seed longevity characteristics. Faster decline in seed germination after aging at high temperature and humidity was observed in 'Co 1', which absorbed more moisture and required less rupture force to break the seed coat. Significantly high positive correlation coefficient, (r=0.766 **) was found between soil emergence and germination after 8 days of accelerated ageing.

PubMed | Directorate of Soybean Research
Type: | Journal: Photosynthesis research | Year: 2016

High-temperature stress is a major environmental stress and there are limited studies elucidating its impact on soybean (Glycine max L. Merril.). The objectives of present study were to quantify the effect of high temperature on changes in leaf thickness, number of stomata on adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces, gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and seed yield in soybean. Twelve soybean genotypes were grown at day/night temperatures of 30/22, 34/24, 38/26 and 42/28C with an average temperature of 26, 29, 32 and 35C, respectively, under greenhouse conditions. One set was also grown under ambient temperature conditions where crop season average maximum, minimum and mean temperatures were 28.0, 22.4 and 25.2C, respectively. Significant negative effect of temperature was observed on specific leaf weight (SLW) and leaf thickness. Rate of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and water use efficiency declined as the growing temperatures increased; whereas, intercellular CO

PubMed | Directorate of Soybean Research and Barkatullah University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Physiology and molecular biology of plants : an international journal of functional plant biology | Year: 2015

Molecular characterization and genetic diversity among 82 soybean accessions was carried out by using 44 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Of the 44 SSR markers used, 40 markers were found polymorphic among 82 soybean accessions. These 40 polymorphic markers produced a total of 119 alleles, of which five were unique alleles and four alleles were rare. The allele number for each SSR locus varied between two to four with an average of 2.97 alleles per marker. Polymorphic information content values of SSRs ranged from 0.101 to 0.742 with an average of 0.477. Jaccards similarity coefficient was employed to study the molecular diversity of 82 soybean accessions. The pairwise genetic similarity among 82 soybean accessions varied from 0.28 to 0.90. The dendrogram constructed based on genetic similarities among 82 soybean accessions identified three major clusters. The majority of genotypes including four improved cultivars were grouped in a single subcluster IIIa of cluster III, indicating high genetic resemblance among soybean germplasm collection in India.

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