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Kumar A.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region | Gupta S.,Directorate of Soybean Research | Pandey A.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region | Pattanayak A.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region | Ngachan S.V.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India Section B - Biological Sciences | Year: 2016

Genetic variation is prerequisite for any crop improvement program as it helps in development of superior recombinants. Forty eight genotypes were evaluated for agronomic traits, yield and characters related to Al tolerance. The components of variability revealed high magnitude and highly heritable nature of the variations. High heritability with high to moderate value of genetic advance over mean was exhibited by majority of morphological traits used in the study. Significant correlations were observed for aluminum tolerance related traits, agronomic and yield traits. Principal components analysis revealed that the first three most informative components accounted for 70 % of the variance. The clustering pattern as revealed by dendrogram, based on average distance, classified the accessions into five clusters. Several high performing genotypes namely, N-861, Khougjai Phou, Posimot, Aaha and Epyo were found in the study which can be used for future breeding purposes. © 2014, The National Academy of Sciences, India. Source


Sharma M.P.,Directorate of Soybean Research | Buyer J.S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Applied Soil Ecology | Year: 2015

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are well-known plant symbionts which provide enhanced phosphorus uptake as well as other benefits to their host plants. Quantification of mycorrhizal density and root colonization has traditionally been performed by root staining and microscopic examination methods, which are time-consuming, laborious, and difficult to reproduce between laboratories. A number of biochemical markers for estimating mycorrhizal hyphae and spores have been published. In this study we grew maize plants in three different soils in a replicated greenhouse experiment and compared the results from two microscopic methods, spore density and root colonization, to the results from three lipid biomarker methods: neutral lipid fatty acid, phospholipid fatty acid, and ester-linked fatty acid analysis. Ester-linked fatty acid analysis gave consistent results for both spore density and root colonization, but neutral lipid fatty acid analysis had the highest correlation to AMF spore counts. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis was not correlated to spore density and did not reproducibly correlate to root colonization. © 2015. Source


Dixit A.K.,Devi Ahilya University | Bhatnagar D.,Devi Ahilya University | Kumar V.,Directorate of Soybean Research | Chawla D.,Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Medical College | Fakhruddin K.,Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Medical College
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2012

The in vitro antioxidant potential and in vivo radioprotective ability of soy isoflavones was studied. Male Wistar rats were orally administered with soybean isoflavones (60. mg/kg) for 21. days followed by gamma irradiation exposure. Survival studies in rats exposed at 10. Gy and endogenous spleen colony forming unit assay (CFU) at 6.0. Gy were performed in order to find radioprotective and immunomodulatory nature of the compound. The rat liver post mitochondrial supernatant and erythrocytes were used to measure lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione (GSH) content along with various antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) after gamma irradiation exposure at 2.0. Gy. Pretreatment with soy isoflavone, prior to gamma irradiation resulted in the increased survival rate of the animals as compared to irradiated group. CFU counts in the isoflavone treated group followed by gamma irradiation at 6 Gy were significantly high as compared to control and the irradiated group, showing immunomodulatory nature of the isoflavones. Pretreatment with isoflavones also significantly reduced the LPO, enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes and improved haematological and histological parameters. The present study suggests that supplementation with isoflavone has potent antioxidant activity and act as probable radioprotector against gamma radiation induced oxidative damage. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Kumawat G.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Kumawat G.,Directorate of Soybean Research | Raje R.S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Bhutani S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
BMC Genetics | Year: 2012

Background: Pigeonpea is an important grain legume of the semi-arid tropics and sub-tropical regions where it plays a crucial role in the food and nutritional security of the people. The average productivity of pigeonpea has remained very low and stagnant for over five decades due to lack of genomic information and intensive breeding efforts. Previous SSR-based linkage maps of pigeonpea used inter-specific crosses due to low inter-varietal polymorphism. Here our aim was to construct a high density intra-specific linkage map using genic-SNP markers for mapping of major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for key agronomic traits, including plant height, number of primary and secondary branches, number of pods, days to flowering and days to maturity in pigeonpea.Results: A population of 186 F2:3 lines derived from an intra-specific cross between inbred lines 'Pusa Dwarf' and 'HDM04-1' was used to construct a dense molecular linkage map of 296 genic SNP and SSR markers covering a total adjusted map length of 1520.22 cM for the 11 chromosomes of the pigeonpea genome. This is the first dense intra-specific linkage map of pigeonpea with the highest genome length coverage. Phenotypic data from the F2:3 families were used to identify thirteen QTLs for the six agronomic traits. The proportion of phenotypic variance explained by the individual QTLs ranged from 3.18% to 51.4%. Ten of these QTLs were clustered in just two genomic regions, indicating pleiotropic effects or close genetic linkage. In addition to the main effects, significant epistatic interaction effects were detected between the QTLs for number of pods per plant.Conclusions: A large amount of information on transcript sequences, SSR markers and draft genome sequence is now available for pigeonpea. However, there is need to develop high density linkage maps and identify genes/QTLs for important agronomic traits for practical breeding applications. This is the first report on identification of QTLs for plant type and maturity traits in pigeonpea. The QTLs identified in this study provide a strong foundation for further validation and fine mapping for utilization in the pigeonpea improvement. © 2012 Kumawat et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Ryan P.R.,CSIRO | Raman H.,Wagga Wagga Agricultural Institute | Gupta S.,CSIRO | Gupta S.,Directorate of Soybean Research | And 3 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2010

Acid soils limit plant production worldwide because their high concentrations of soluble aluminium cations (Al3+) inhibit root growth. Major food crops such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) have evolved mechanisms to resist Al3+ toxicity, thus enabling wider distribution. The origins of Al3+ resistance in wheat are perplexing because all progenitors of this hexaploid species are reportedly sensitive to Al 3+ stress. The large genotypic variation for Al3+ resistance in wheat is largely controlled by expression of an anion channel, TaALMT1, which releases malate anions from the root apices. A current hypothesis proposes that the malate anions protect this sensitive growth zone by binding to Al3+ in the apoplasm. We investigated the evolution of this trait in wheat, and demonstrated that it has multiple independent origins that enhance Al3+ resistance by increasing TaALMT1 expression. One origin is likely to be Aegilops tauschii while other origins occurred more recently from a series of cis mutations that have generated tandemly repeated elements in the TaALMT1 promoter. We generated transgenic plants to directly compare these promoter alleles and demonstrate that the tandemly repeated elements act to enhance gene expression. This study provides an example from higher eukaryotes in which perfect tandem repeats are linked with transcriptional regulation and phenotypic change in the context of evolutionary adaptation to a major abiotic stress. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

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