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Vadez V.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Deshpande S.P.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Kholova J.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Hammer G.L.,University of Queensland | And 3 more authors.
Functional Plant Biology | Year: 2011

A stay-green phenotype enhances the adaptation of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) to terminal drought, although the mechanisms leading to its expression remain unclear. Differences in tillering and leaf area at anthesis, transpiration efficiency (TE), water extraction, harvest index (HI) and yield under terminal drought and fully irrigated conditions were assessed in 29 introgression lines (IL) targeting stay-green quantitative trait loci (QTLs) Stg1, Stg2, Stg3, Stg4, StgA and StgB in an S35 background, and 16 IL targeting Stg1, Stg3, Stg4 and StgB in an R16 background. TE was increased by StgB in the R16 background, whereas there was no effect in the S35 background. Water extraction was increased by Stg1 in the S35 background but not in R16. StgB modified the proportion of water extracted before and after anthesis in the S35 background. While tillering and leaf area at anthesis were decreased by Stg1 and Stg3 in S35, there was no effect in R16. Yield data under fully irrigated conditions showed higher tiller grain yield in Stg1, Stg2 and Stg3 ILs. Although yield differences were mostly explained by HI variation, the yield variation unexplained by HI was closely related to TE in S35 (R 2≤0.29) and R16 (R 2≤0.72), and was closely related to total water extracted in S35 (R 2≤0.41) but not in R16. These data indicate the potential for several stay-green QTLs to affect traits related to plant water use. However, these effects depend on the interaction between the genetic background and individual QTLs. © 2011 CSIRO.

Pahuja S.K.,CCS Haryana Agricultural University | Aruna C.,Directorate of Sorghum Research DSR | Shrotria P.K.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology | Kaur S.,Punjab Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Plant Genetic Resources: Characterisation and Utilisation | Year: 2013

Improvement in multi-cut forage sorghum varieties that can perform better than SSG 59-3, a sweet Sudan grass released in 1974, has been a challenge. Efforts were made to create variability in SSG 59-3 through mutagenesis using both physical and chemical mutagens. Fifteen such mutants were evaluated for 2 years in different locations in India. Considerable variability was observed for important fodder yield and quality traits. SSG 237 flowered 10 d early than SSG 59-3. SSG 231, SSG 260, SSG 232 and SSG 237 had high protein percentage and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) values compared with SSG 59-3. Hydrocyanic acid (HCN), a major anti-nutritional factor, was low in six mutants, the lowest being in SSG 226. This variability can be used in different breeding programmes aimed at improving multi-cut forage sorghum varieties. The lines with improved fodder quality (low HCN, high protein and IVDMD) can be used in the breeding programme for the improvement in multi-cut forage sorghum varieties. Copyright © 2012 NIAB.

Sharma H.C.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Bhagwat V.R.,Directorate of Sorghum Research DSR | Daware D.G.,Marathwada Agricultural University | Pawar D.B.,Mahatma Phule Agricultural University | And 7 more authors.
Plant Breeding | Year: 2014

Sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari is an endemic pest of sorghum during postrainy season, and there is a need to develop cultivars with resistance to this pest. Evaluation of a diverse array of sorghum genotypes under natural and artificial infestation resulted in identification of seven lines (ICSB 215, ICSB 323, ICSB 724, ICSR 165, ICSV 12001, ICSV 12004 and IS 40615) with moderate levels of resistance to aphid damage. Under artificial infestation, 10 lines suffered <20% loss in grain yield as compared to 72.4% grain loss in the susceptible check, Swarna. The genotypes ICSR 165, ICSB 724, IS 40615, DSV 5 and ICSB 323 exhibited moderate levels of resistance to aphid damage (damage rating, DR <5.0) and also had high grain yield potential (>30 q/ha). In another experiment, ICSB 215, ICSB 695, ICSR 161, Line 61510, ICSV 12004, Parbhani Moti and IS 40618 exhibited high grain yield potential (>25 q/ha) and exhibited <50% variation in grain yield as compared to more than 80% in the susceptible check, in CK 60 B. The genotypes RSV 1211, RS 29, RSV 1338, EC 8-2, PU 10-1, IS 40617 and ICSB 695 though showed a susceptible reaction to aphid damage, but suffered relatively low loss in grain yield, suggesting that these lines have tolerance to aphid damage. Principal coordinate analysis suggested that the genotypes with aphid resistance are quite diverse and can be used to breed for aphid resistance and high grain yield potential and also in breeding for aphid resistance in sorghum with adaptation to the postrainy season. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Bhagwat V.R.,Directorate of Sorghum Research DSR | Shyam Prasad G.,Directorate of Sorghum Research DSR | Kalaisekar A.,Directorate of Sorghum Research DSR | Subbarayudu B.,Directorate of Sorghum Research DSR | And 5 more authors.
Annals of Arid Zone | Year: 2011

Experiments were conducted to evaluate sorghum checks for resistance to shoot fly and stem borer at the Directorate of Sorghum Research, Hyderabad, and AICSIP centers (Surat, Udaipur, Indore, Coimbatore and Parbhani) during kharif 2007, 2008 and 2009. Taking into consideration six parameters viz., glossiness, seedling vigor, shoot fly deadhearts, stem borer deadhearts, tunnelling and exit holes/stalk due to borer, hierarchical clustering was done by centroid method. Three entries viz., IS 2312, IS 18551 and IS 2205 (resistant checks) were resistant and seven entries viz., JJ1041, PVK 809, CO 28(S), CSV 15, SPV 1616 and CSV 17 were moderately resistant to shoot fly and stem borer indicating multiple resistance.

Nagaraja Reddy R.,Directorate of Sorghum Research DSR | Nagaraja Reddy R.,Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research DMAPR | Madhusudhana R.,Directorate of Sorghum Research DSR | Murali Mohan S.,Directorate of Sorghum Research DSR | And 3 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2013

Sorghum, a cereal of economic importance ensures food and fodder security for millions of rural families in the semi-arid tropics. The objective of the present study was to identify and validate quantitative trait loci (QTL) for grain yield and other agronomic traits using replicated phenotypic data sets from three post-rainy dry sorghum crop seasons involving a mapping population with 245 F9 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross of M35-1 × B35. A genetic linkage map was constructed with 237 markers consisting of 174 genomic, 60 genic and 3 morphological markers. The QTL analysis for 11 traits following composite interval mapping identified 91 QTL with 5-12 QTL for each trait. QTL detected in the population individually explained phenotypic variation between 2.5 and 30.3 % for a given trait and six major genomic regions with QTL effect on multiple traits were identified. Stable QTL across seasons were identified. Of the 60 genic markers mapped, 21 were found at QTL peak or tightly linked with QTL. A gene-based marker XnhsbSFCILP67 (Sb03g028240) on SBI-03, encoding indole-3-acetic acid-amido synthetase GH3.5, was found to be involved in QTL for seven traits. The QTL-linked markers identified for 11 agronomic traits may assist in fine mapping, map-based gene isolation and also for improving post-rainy sorghum through marker-assisted breeding. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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