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Nagaraja Reddy R.,Directorate of Sorghum Research DSR | Nagaraja Reddy R.,Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research DMAPR | Madhusudhana R.,Directorate of Sorghum Research DSR | Murali Mohan S.,Directorate of Sorghum Research DSR | And 3 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2013

Sorghum, a cereal of economic importance ensures food and fodder security for millions of rural families in the semi-arid tropics. The objective of the present study was to identify and validate quantitative trait loci (QTL) for grain yield and other agronomic traits using replicated phenotypic data sets from three post-rainy dry sorghum crop seasons involving a mapping population with 245 F9 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross of M35-1 × B35. A genetic linkage map was constructed with 237 markers consisting of 174 genomic, 60 genic and 3 morphological markers. The QTL analysis for 11 traits following composite interval mapping identified 91 QTL with 5-12 QTL for each trait. QTL detected in the population individually explained phenotypic variation between 2.5 and 30.3 % for a given trait and six major genomic regions with QTL effect on multiple traits were identified. Stable QTL across seasons were identified. Of the 60 genic markers mapped, 21 were found at QTL peak or tightly linked with QTL. A gene-based marker XnhsbSFCILP67 (Sb03g028240) on SBI-03, encoding indole-3-acetic acid-amido synthetase GH3.5, was found to be involved in QTL for seven traits. The QTL-linked markers identified for 11 agronomic traits may assist in fine mapping, map-based gene isolation and also for improving post-rainy sorghum through marker-assisted breeding. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Aruna C.,Directorate of Sorghum Research DSR | Priya A.R.,Directorate of Sorghum Research DSR | Neeraja C.N.,Directorate of Rice Research | Patil J.V.,Directorate of Sorghum Research DSR | Visarada K.B.R.S.,Directorate of Sorghum Research DSR
Crop Protection | Year: 2012

Shoot flies and stem borers are key shoot pests that destabilize the yield of sorghum [. Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] across the semi-arid tropics of Asia and Africa. Progress in building up genetic resistance through breeding programs is slow, which can be attributed to the moderate levels of resistance conferred by the resistance sources in use. Genetic diversity analysis of resistant and elite genotypes is essential in designing breeding programs for resistance to the above pests. In the present study, the genetic diversity of seven genotypes resistant to shoot fly and/or stem borers, a susceptible control genotype and two susceptible elite hybrid parental lines was analyzed using PCR amplification product differences revealed by 26 ISSR primers. Cluster analysis based on ISSR markers resulted in two major groups, (i) resistance sources, and (ii) the susceptible control and hybrid parental lines. It was interesting to note that (a) the susceptible elite hybrid parents and susceptible control were genetically similar, and (b) resistance sources were genetically diverse as a group, offering the possibility that they may have diverse resistance mechanisms. Two improved resistance sources, which are products of crosses between durra race resistance sources and agronomically elite caudatum race materials, bridged two sub-groups of resistance sources. A primer (UBC827) showed the highest PIC value (0.98), thus detecting to the highest level of polymorphism. (AC). n-based primers detected higher levels of polymorphism than others used in this study, and can be recommended for future use. Incorporation of multiple resistant sources in crossing, and pyramiding of genes for resistance in the subsequent generations would help in improvement of shoot fly and stem borer resistance in the elite lines. Breeding strategies to utilize these resistant lines are discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Bhagwat V.R.,Directorate of Sorghum Research DSR | Shyam Prasad G.,Directorate of Sorghum Research DSR | Kalaisekar A.,Directorate of Sorghum Research DSR | Subbarayudu B.,Directorate of Sorghum Research DSR | And 5 more authors.
Annals of Arid Zone | Year: 2011

Experiments were conducted to evaluate sorghum checks for resistance to shoot fly and stem borer at the Directorate of Sorghum Research, Hyderabad, and AICSIP centers (Surat, Udaipur, Indore, Coimbatore and Parbhani) during kharif 2007, 2008 and 2009. Taking into consideration six parameters viz., glossiness, seedling vigor, shoot fly deadhearts, stem borer deadhearts, tunnelling and exit holes/stalk due to borer, hierarchical clustering was done by centroid method. Three entries viz., IS 2312, IS 18551 and IS 2205 (resistant checks) were resistant and seven entries viz., JJ1041, PVK 809, CO 28(S), CSV 15, SPV 1616 and CSV 17 were moderately resistant to shoot fly and stem borer indicating multiple resistance.


Pahuja S.K.,CCS Haryana Agricultural University | Aruna C.,Directorate of Sorghum Research DSR | Shrotria P.K.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology | Kaur S.,Punjab Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Plant Genetic Resources: Characterisation and Utilisation | Year: 2013

Improvement in multi-cut forage sorghum varieties that can perform better than SSG 59-3, a sweet Sudan grass released in 1974, has been a challenge. Efforts were made to create variability in SSG 59-3 through mutagenesis using both physical and chemical mutagens. Fifteen such mutants were evaluated for 2 years in different locations in India. Considerable variability was observed for important fodder yield and quality traits. SSG 237 flowered 10 d early than SSG 59-3. SSG 231, SSG 260, SSG 232 and SSG 237 had high protein percentage and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) values compared with SSG 59-3. Hydrocyanic acid (HCN), a major anti-nutritional factor, was low in six mutants, the lowest being in SSG 226. This variability can be used in different breeding programmes aimed at improving multi-cut forage sorghum varieties. The lines with improved fodder quality (low HCN, high protein and IVDMD) can be used in the breeding programme for the improvement in multi-cut forage sorghum varieties. Copyright © 2012 NIAB.


Vinutha K.S.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Rayaprolu L.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Yadagiri K.,Directorate of Sorghum Research DSR | Umakanth A.V.,Directorate of Sorghum Research DSR | And 2 more authors.
Sugar Tech | Year: 2014

Renewable energy is a critical source of energy that contributes to energy security, reducing dependence on fossil fuels and emission of greenhouse gases. India would require more than 6.3 billion liters of ethanol to meet its ambitious target of 20 % EBP by 2017. Sweet sorghum is a promising dryland adapted biofuel feedstock that addresses food-versus-fuel issue favourably. Owing to its genetic variability in terms of stalk sugar traits such as total soluble sugars, green stalk yield, juice quantity and grain yield various research institutes in India and abroad have developed superior varieties and hybrids. Two commercial sweet sorghum based distilleries were established in India but could not operate for long for several reasons. The decentralized crushing units were established to overcome the issues encountered by centralized units. The large scale cultivation of sweet sorghum can happen if improved cultivars with higher sugar yield with multiple biotic and abiotic stress tolerance are available besides more importantly the policy support from Government of India in terms of both producer and processor incentives materialize. © 2014 Society for Sugar Research & Promotion.


Vadez V.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Deshpande S.P.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Kholova J.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Hammer G.L.,University of Queensland | And 3 more authors.
Functional Plant Biology | Year: 2011

A stay-green phenotype enhances the adaptation of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) to terminal drought, although the mechanisms leading to its expression remain unclear. Differences in tillering and leaf area at anthesis, transpiration efficiency (TE), water extraction, harvest index (HI) and yield under terminal drought and fully irrigated conditions were assessed in 29 introgression lines (IL) targeting stay-green quantitative trait loci (QTLs) Stg1, Stg2, Stg3, Stg4, StgA and StgB in an S35 background, and 16 IL targeting Stg1, Stg3, Stg4 and StgB in an R16 background. TE was increased by StgB in the R16 background, whereas there was no effect in the S35 background. Water extraction was increased by Stg1 in the S35 background but not in R16. StgB modified the proportion of water extracted before and after anthesis in the S35 background. While tillering and leaf area at anthesis were decreased by Stg1 and Stg3 in S35, there was no effect in R16. Yield data under fully irrigated conditions showed higher tiller grain yield in Stg1, Stg2 and Stg3 ILs. Although yield differences were mostly explained by HI variation, the yield variation unexplained by HI was closely related to TE in S35 (R 2≤0.29) and R16 (R 2≤0.72), and was closely related to total water extracted in S35 (R 2≤0.41) but not in R16. These data indicate the potential for several stay-green QTLs to affect traits related to plant water use. However, these effects depend on the interaction between the genetic background and individual QTLs. © 2011 CSIRO.


Nagaraja Reddy R.,Directorate of Sorghum Research DSR | Nagaraja Reddy R.,Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research DMAPR | Madhusudhana R.,Directorate of Sorghum Research DSR | Murali Mohan S.,Directorate of Sorghum Research DSR | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2011

Molecular variation within known genes controlling specific functions provide candidate gene-based markers which are tightly linked with the trait of interest. Unigene-derived microsatellite markers, with their unique identity and positions, offer the advantage of unraveling variation in the expressed component of the genome. We characterized ≥12-bp-long microsatellite loci from 13,899 unique sequences of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] available in the NCBI unigene database for their abundance and possible use in sorghum breeding. Analysis of 12,464 unigenes (≥200-bp) using MISA software identified 14,082 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in 7,370 unigenes, from which 1,519 unigene SSR markers were developed. The average frequency of SSR was 1 per1.6 kb and 1.0 per 1.1 unigene; hexamers followed by trimers were found in abundance, of which 33.3% AT-rich and CCG repeats were the most abundant. Of the 302 unigene SSRs tested, 60 (19.8%) were polymorphic between the two parents, M35-1 and B35 of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population. A mapping population consisting of 500 RILs was developed using the above two parents, and a subset of random 245 RILs was used for genotyping with polymorphic SSRs. We developed a linkage map containing 231 markers, of which 228 (174 genomic and 54 genic) were microsatellites and three were morphological markers. Markers were distributed over 21 linkage groups, and spanned a genetic distance of 1235.5 cM. This map includes 81 new SSRs, of which 35 (21 unigene and 14 genomic) were developed in the present study and 46 from other studies. The order of the SSR markers mapped in the present study was confirmed physically by BLAST search against the whole-genome shotgun sequence of sorghum. Many unigene sequences used for marker development in this study include genes coding for important regulatory proteins and functional proteins that are involved in stress-related metabolism. The unigene SSR markers used together with other SSR markers to construct the sorghum genetic map will have applications in studies on comparative mapping, functional diversity analysis and association mapping, and for quantitative trait loci detection for drought and other agronomically important traits in sorghum. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Sharma H.C.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Bhagwat V.R.,Directorate of Sorghum Research DSR | Daware D.G.,Marathwada Agricultural University | Pawar D.B.,Mahatma Phule Agricultural University | And 7 more authors.
Plant Breeding | Year: 2014

Sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari is an endemic pest of sorghum during postrainy season, and there is a need to develop cultivars with resistance to this pest. Evaluation of a diverse array of sorghum genotypes under natural and artificial infestation resulted in identification of seven lines (ICSB 215, ICSB 323, ICSB 724, ICSR 165, ICSV 12001, ICSV 12004 and IS 40615) with moderate levels of resistance to aphid damage. Under artificial infestation, 10 lines suffered <20% loss in grain yield as compared to 72.4% grain loss in the susceptible check, Swarna. The genotypes ICSR 165, ICSB 724, IS 40615, DSV 5 and ICSB 323 exhibited moderate levels of resistance to aphid damage (damage rating, DR <5.0) and also had high grain yield potential (>30 q/ha). In another experiment, ICSB 215, ICSB 695, ICSR 161, Line 61510, ICSV 12004, Parbhani Moti and IS 40618 exhibited high grain yield potential (>25 q/ha) and exhibited <50% variation in grain yield as compared to more than 80% in the susceptible check, in CK 60 B. The genotypes RSV 1211, RS 29, RSV 1338, EC 8-2, PU 10-1, IS 40617 and ICSB 695 though showed a susceptible reaction to aphid damage, but suffered relatively low loss in grain yield, suggesting that these lines have tolerance to aphid damage. Principal coordinate analysis suggested that the genotypes with aphid resistance are quite diverse and can be used to breed for aphid resistance and high grain yield potential and also in breeding for aphid resistance in sorghum with adaptation to the postrainy season. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Sharma H.C.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Bhagwat V.R.,Directorate of Sorghum Research DSR | Munghate R.S.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Sharma S.P.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | And 8 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2015

Sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata is one of the most important pests of dual-purpose sorghums during the postrainy season in India. Therefore, it is important to identify stable sources of resistance to develop cultivars with shoot fly resistance and adaptation to postrainy season. We evaluated 190 lines adapted to the postrainy season across five locations, of which 30 lines were identified with resistance to A. soccata. These lines were further evaluated for three seasons across five locations to identify lines with stable resistance to this pest across seasons and locations. Data were recorded on oviposition non-preference, deadheart incidence, recovery resistance, morphological traits (leaf glossiness, seedling vigor, plant height and days to 50% flowering), and grain yield. The sorghum genotypes CSV 22, ICSB 422, ICSB 425, ICSB 428, ICSB 432, ICSB 458, ICSB 463, IS 2312, IS 5480, IS 18662, Phule Chitra, RSV 1093, IS 18551, and RSV 1235 exhibited resistance to shoot fly damage across seasons, of which ICSB 425, ICSB 428, ICSB 432, IS 2312, IS 5480, and IS 18551 showed non-preference for oviposition. Six genotypes (ICSB 425, IS 2312, IS 18662, RSV 1090, RSV 1093, and IS 18551) also showed good recovery resistance following shoot fly damage. Principal coordinate analysis placed the maintainer lines (B-lines) with shoot fly resistance in two clusters with ICSB 422, ICSB 432, ICSB 435, ICSB 456 and ICSB 458 in one cluster and ICSB 425, ICSB 428 and ICSB 463 in the other; the open pollinated varieties/germplasm lines (restorers) were placed in a different group (CSV 22, IS 5480, IS 2312 and RSV 1093), suggesting the possibilities for developing hybrids with adaptation to the postrainy season. Based on regression coefficient and deadheart incidence, the genotypes IS 2312, ICSB 425, RSV 1090 and ICSB 428 were stable in expression of resistance to shoot fly across seasons and locations. The genotypes CSV 22 and RSV 1093 exhibited high grain yield potential and resistance to shoot fly damage, while Phule Yashoda, IS 2312, RSV 1235, and ICSV 574 were moderately resistant to shoot fly damage, but had high grain yield potential. These genotypes can be used in sorghum improvement for developing cultivars with shoot fly resistance, high grain yield and adaptation to postrainy season. © 2015 .


Satish K.,Directorate of Sorghum Research DSR | Satish K.,Purdue University | Madhusudhana R.,Directorate of Sorghum Research DSR | Padmaja P.G.,Directorate of Sorghum Research DSR | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2012

The associations of candidate genes with quantitative trait loci (QTL) for insect resistance provide primary insight into the molecular mechanisms of resistance. The objectives of the present study were to genetically map the candidate genes and identify their association with shoot fly resistance, and update the genetic map with new markers to locate additional QTL. In this study, 80 candidate gene (CG)-based markers were developed, targeting the seven most important shoot fly resistance genomic regions reported in our previous study. Of the 17 polymorphic CGs, the allelic polymorphisms of seven genes were significantly associated with 18 major QTL for component traits of resistance in multiple QTL mapping (MQM), and two genes in the single-marker analysis. MQM with an updated map revealed 20 new QTL with LOD and R2 (%) values ranging from 2. 6 to 15. 6 and 5. 5 to 34. 5 %, respectively. The susceptible parent 296B contributed resistance at 10 QTL. Interestingly, an orthologous insect resistance gene Cysteine protease-Mir1 (XnhsbmSFC34/SBI-10), previously presumed to be a CG based on synteny with maize, was significantly associated with major QTL for all traits (except seedling vigor) explaining 22. 1 % of the phenotypic variation for deadhearts%, a direct measure of shoot fly resistance. Similarly, a NBS-LRR gene (XnhsbmSFCILP2/SBI-10), involved in rice brown planthopper resistance, was associated with deadhearts% and number of eggs per plant. Beta-1,3-glucanase (XnhsbmSFC4/SBI-10), involved in aphid and brown planthopper resistance, was associated with deadhearts% and leaf glossiness. Comparative QTL analysis revealed the existence of common QTL for shoot fly and other important sorghum insect pests such as greenbug, head bug, and midge. Finally, the associated CGs should aid in elucidating the molecular basis of resistance, high-resolution mapping, and map-based cloning of major QTL, besides providing powerful gene tags for marker-assisted selection of shoot fly resistance. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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