Directorate of Sorghum Research

Hyderabad, India

Directorate of Sorghum Research

Hyderabad, India
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Ratnavathi C.V.,Directorate of Sorghum Research | Chakravarthy S.K.,Directorate of Sorghum Research | Komala V.V.,Directorate of Sorghum Research | Chavan U.D.,Sorghum Research Station | Patil J.V.,Directorate of Sorghum Research
Sugar Tech | Year: 2011

Fossil energy resources, the primary source of transport fuel in the world is depleting dramatically to meet the ever-increasing energy demands globally. Crop plants are one of the best sources of renewable energy which can be used as feedstock for biofuel production. Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], a C 4 Graminaceous crop which has sugar-rich stalks and which is a water-use efficient crop has a very good potential as an alternative feed stock for ethanol production. It is the only crop that provides grain and stem that can be used for sugar, alcohol, syrup, jaggery, fodder, fuel, bedding, roofing, fencing, paper and chewing. Sweet sorghum juices usually contain approximately 16-18% fermentable sugar, which can be directly fermented into ethanol by yeast. Technical challenges of using sweet sorghum for biofuels are a short harvest period for highest sugar content and fast sugar degradation during storage. Various review works based on the problems of sweet sorghum were described in this review. Some studies are on the genetic potential of sweet sorghum for higher green cane yield and juice extractability where as some studies are purely on the shelf life of the juice how to preserve the juice with low cost against bacterial contamination. Studies also involve testing the potential of genotypes for superior yields of cane during post rainy and summer seasons also to make the cane available for maximum period in a year. Studies on fermentation and hydrolysis of lignocellulose are also addressed in this review. © 2011 Society for Sugar Research & Promotion.

Rakshit S.,Directorate of Sorghum Research | Rakshit A.,Indian Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture | Patil J.V.,Directorate of Sorghum Research
Journal of Genetics | Year: 2012

Most traits of interest to medical, agricultural and animal scientists show continuous variation and complex mode of inheritance. DNA-based markers are being deployed to analyse such complex traits, that are known as quantitative trait loci (QTL). In conventional QTL analysis, F 2, backcross populations, recombinant inbred lines, backcross inbred lines and double haploids from biparental crosses are commonly used. Introgression lines and near isogenic lines are also being used for QTL analysis. However, such populations have major limitations like predominantly relying on the recombination events taking place in the F 1 generation and mapping of only the allelic pairs present in the two parents. The second generation mapping resources like association mapping, nested association mapping and multiparent intercross populations potentially address the major limitations of available mapping resources. The potential of multiparent intercross populations in gene mapping has been discussed here. In such populations both linkage and association analysis can be conductted without encountering the limitations of structured populations. In such populations, larger genetic variation in the germplasm is accessed and various allelic and cytoplasmic interactions are assessed. For all practical purposes, across crop species, use of eight founders and a fixed population of 1000 individuals are most appropriate. Limitations with multiparent intercross populations are that they require longer time and more resource to be generated and they are likely to show extensive segregation for developmental traits, limiting their use in the analysis of complex traits. However, multiparent intercross population resources are likely to bring a paradigm shift towards QTL analysis in plant species. © 2012 Indian Academy of Sciences.

Dalal M.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Dalal M.,Directorate of Sorghum Research | Inupakutika M.,Directorate of Sorghum Research | Inupakutika M.,Eastern New Mexico University
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2014

Abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in growth, development and adaptation of plants to environmental stresses. The mechanism of ABA signal transduction involves three core components namely ABA receptors [pyrabactin resistance 1 (PYR1)/PYR1-like (PYL)/regulatory component of ABA receptor (RCAR)], clade A PP2Cs and Class III SnRK2 family proteins. In the present study, we identified and analyzed the core components of ABA signaling in sorghum, which is known for its drought tolerance. Genome wide in silico analysis led to the identification of eight PYL ABA receptors, nine clade A PP2Cs and three class III SnRK2 family members. Abiotic stresses and exogenous ABA-mediated transcriptional changes of the genes encoding ABA core signaling components were analyzed at seedling stage. All the members of SbPYL gene family were downregulated, except SbPYL1 and SbPYL7 which showed significant upregulation in leaf under drought stress. SbPYL1 and SbPYL5 were upregulated in response to ABA, cold, high salt and PEG-induced osmotic stress, while SbPYL4 showed significant upregulation only under cold stress. Expression levels of the SbPP2C genes were higher or unaffected in response to exogenous ABA and abiotic stresses in leaf except SbPP2C5, which decreased under cold stress. SbPP2C4, SbPP2C5 and SbPP2C6 were highly induced (up to 56-fold–99-fold increase) under different stresses. Expression of class III SbSnRK2 genes was either unaffected or downregulated under abiotic stresses and exogenous ABA. Heat stress downregulated the expression of all the ABA core signaling component genes except that of SbPP2C6 which was upregulated under heat stress. In general, abiotic stresses upregulated the expression of PP2Cs but downregulated the expression of SnRK2 in sorghum seedlings. Differential stress-responsive expression and less number of PYLs in sorghum as compared with Arabidopsis suggest that SbPYL family members might have acquired distinct functions during evolution. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Dalal M.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Dalal M.,Directorate of Sorghum Research | Chinnusamy V.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Bansal K.C.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2010

Background: Carotenoids are a group of C40 isoprenoid molecules that play diverse biological and ecological roles in plants. Tomato is an important vegetable in human diet and provides the vitamin A precursor β-carotene. Genes encoding enzymes involved in carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have been cloned. However, regulation of genes involved in carotenoid biosynthetic pathway and accumulation of specific carotenoid in chromoplasts are not well understood. One of the approaches to understand regulation of carotenoid metabolism is to characterize the promoters of genes encoding proteins involved in carotenoid metabolism. Lycopene β-cyclase is one of the crucial enzymes in carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in plants. Its activity is required for synthesis of both α-and β-carotenes that are further converted into other carotenoids such as lutein, zeaxanthin, etc. This study describes the isolation and characterization of chromoplast-specific Lycopene β-cyclase (CYC-B) promoter from a green fruited S. habrochaites genotype EC520061.Results: A 908 bp region upstream to the initiation codon of the Lycopene β-cyclase gene was cloned and identified as full-length promoter. To identify promoter region necessary for regulating developmental expression of the ShCYC-B gene, the full-length promoter and its three different 5' truncated fragments were cloned upstream to the initiation codon of GUS reporter cDNA in binary vectors. These four plant transformation vectors were separately transformed in to Agrobacterium. Agrobacterium-mediated transient and stable expression systems were used to study the GUS expression driven by the full-length promoter and its 5' deletion fragments in tomato. The full-length promoter showed a basal level activity in leaves, and its expression was upregulated > 5-fold in flowers and fruits in transgenic tomato plants. Deletion of -908 to -577 bp 5' to ATG decreases the ShCYC-B promoter strength, while deletion of -908 to -437 bp 5' to ATG led to significant increase in the activity of GUS in the transgenic plants. Promoter deletion analysis led to the identification of a short promoter region (-436 bp to ATG) that exhibited a higher promoter strength but similar developmental expression pattern as compared with the full-length ShCYC-B promoter.Conclusion: Functional characterization of the full-length ShCYC-B promoter and its deletion fragments in transient expression system in fruto as well as in stable transgenic tomato revealed that the promoter is developmentally regulated and its expression is upregulated in chromoplast-rich flowers and fruits. Our study identified a short promoter region with functional activity and developmental expression pattern similar to that of the full-length ShCYC-B promoter. This 436 bp promoter region can be used in promoter::reporter fusion molecular genetic screens to identify mutants impaired in CYC-B expression, and thus can be a valuable tool in understanding carotenoid metabolism in tomato. Moreover, this short promoter region of ShCYC-B may be useful in genetic engineering of carotenoid content and other agronomic traits in tomato fruits. © 2010 Dalal et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Padmaja P.G.,Directorate of Sorghum Research | Aruna C.,Directorate of Sorghum Research | Patil J.V.,Directorate of Sorghum Research
Crop Protection | Year: 2012

Spotted stemborer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is the most important pest of sorghum in Asia and south and eastern Africa. Host plant resistance is an important control tactic for controlling this pest. Two breeding lines 27B × PB 15881-3 and 463B × PB 15881-3 with their parents, resistant and susceptible genotypes were evaluated in the field, glasshouse and laboratory for different resistance parameters. Breeding lines and genotypes varied significantly in foliar damage ratings, percentage of stem length tunneled, percentage of plants with deadhearts, larval survival, larval and pupal weights, larval and pupal duration, and percentage pupation and adult emergence in diets amended with leaf powder of different sorghum genotypes. The breeding lines 27B × PB 15881-3 and 463B × PB 15881-3 showed antixenosis and antibiosis to C. partellus in terms of reduced eggs per plant, larval survival and development. The levels of antixenosis and antibiosis of both breeding lines were similar to their resistant parents. Results indicate that transmission of characteristics responsible for resistance to the progeny from the resistant parent occurred. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Madhusudhana R.,Directorate of Sorghum Research | Patil J.V.,Directorate of Sorghum Research
Euphytica | Year: 2013

Plant height is one of the most important agronomic traits in sorghum with its relevance for biomass, grain yield, fodder and lodging. To understand its genetic basis, the quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population consisting of 168 RILs derived from the cross between the two sorghum inbred lines 296B (dwarf) and IS18551 (tall) over six seasons. Two major QTL were identified one each on chromosomes SBI-06 and SBI-07 corresponding to the Dw2 and Dw3 gene loci together accounting 41 % plant height variation. In addition, a morphological bloom trait locus which remained unlinked in the linkage map was found to be significantly linked with plant height in single marker analysis explaining 22 % of the trait variation. By comparing the map positions of Dw1, Dw2 and Dw3, the new locus for plant height linked with bloom is proposed as Dw4 locus. Both SSR and the morphological bloom loci linked with height QTL of the present study can be employed as effective tools in marker-assisted breeding for rapid conversion of selected inbred parent lines either as dwarf seed (male sterile) parents or taller pollinators for hybrid seed industry, or for developing high biomass lines in sweet sorghum for exploitation as high bio-fuel crop. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Ratnavathi C.V.,Directorate of Sorghum Research | Komala V.V.,Directorate of Sorghum Research | Kumar B.S.V.,Directorate of Sorghum Research | Das I.K.,Directorate of Sorghum Research | Patil J.V.,Directorate of Sorghum Research
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is an important coarse cereal crop grown for grain and fodder in the semi-arid Tropics, mainly in Asian and African countries. In India sorghum is consumed as human food and poultry feed. Sorghum grain grown in the rainy season (kharif) is becoming severely affected by grain moulds, the major fungi involved being Aspergillus, Fusarium and Curvularia. If the extent of mould is severe, the grain is unsafe for consumption owing to contamination by mycotoxins. RESULTS: This paper presents a multi-centre study conducted in sorghum to evaluate natural contamination of aflatoxin B1 in India. A total of 1606 grain sorghum samples were collected during the rainy (kharif) season across 4 years from seven states of India, representing different geographical regions of the country. Aflatoxin B1 contamination during 2007-08 was the highest (13.1%), followed by samples from the year 2004-05 (2.85%). The samples collected in years 2005-06 and 2006-07 showed contamination below 1%. The number of samples (35) showing aflatoxin B1 contamination above the safety limit was also highest during 2007-08 as compared to samples from the other years. CONCLUSION: This study, conducted for 4 years, showed that natural contamination of aflatoxin B1 in sorghum grown in India is within safety limits (20 μg kg-1) recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Committee and 73% of samples were positive for toxin. However, 0.75% (12) of total samples contained aflatoxin above the safety limit. The overall occurrence of toxin from Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan was below 5 μg kg-1. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

Komala V.V.,Directorate of Sorghum Research | Ratnavathi C.V.,Directorate of Sorghum Research | Vijay Kumar B.S.,Directorate of Sorghum Research | Das I.K.,Directorate of Sorghum Research
Food Control | Year: 2012

The potential use of antifungal component eugenol for the reduction of aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1) in stored sorghum grain was investigated. Fungal infestation of sorghum results in deterioration of varied biochemical composition of the grain. In this study, three genotypes (M35-1; C-43; LPJ) were inoculated with two highly toxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus with three different eugenol treatments in order to evaluate the AFB 1 production. From this study it was found that at 8.025 mg/g concentration, eugenol completely inhibited the AFB 1 production. The lowest amount of AFB 1 was observed in genotype M35-1, whereas higher amount AFB 1 was observed in LPJ followed by C-43. In all sorghum genotypes there was a significant positive correlation existing between protein content and aflatoxin produced, the r values being 0.789 and 0.653, respectively. Starch in three genotypes was found to have a significant negative correlation (r = -0.704; -0.609) with aflatoxin produced. The starch content decreased whereas the protein content in all sorghum varieties increased during infection. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Audilakshmi S.,Directorate of Sorghum Research | Mall A.K.,Directorate of Sorghum Research | Swarnalatha M.,Directorate of Sorghum Research | Seetharama N.,Directorate of Sorghum Research
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2010

Sweet sorghum is gaining importance as a raw material for ethanol production. Information on genetics of sugar content in stalk is required to facilitate the breeding of cultivars with high ethanol yield. Generation mean analysis and frequency distribution studies were carried out in crosses 27 B × kellar, and 27 B × BJ 204 for sweet stalk during 2006 and 2007. Kellar (a US sweet sorghum line) and BJ 204 (a Chinese line) are high brix (sweet stalk) lines. The traits studied were: brix, sucrose, stalk, and juice yield and plant height. The mean performance of families showed that the F1 in crosses for high brix and sucrose percentage were tending towards P2 (higher sugar percentage parent) implying these traits to be dominant for higher brix and sucrose content. However, the mean values of F1 for stalk and juice yields and plant height showed over-dominance for the traits. Frequency distribution of F2 showed that brix and sucrose percentage are polygenic traits, and stalk and juice yields are oligogenic traits. Generation mean analysis showed that both additive and dominant gene actions for traits, sucrose and brix in stalk juice were significant. Since the plant traits important for high stalk sugar percentage show dominance and over-dominance inheritance, hybrid breeding will be useful. Selection for pure lines with high brix is to be practised in later generations. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Ratnavathi C.V.,Directorate of Sorghum Research | Suresh K.,Directorate of Sorghum Research | Kumar B.S.V.,Directorate of Sorghum Research | Pallavi M.,Directorate of Sorghum Research | And 2 more authors.
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2010

Sugarcane molasses is the main source for ethanol production in India. Sweet sorghum with its juicy stem containing sugars equivalent to that of sugarcane is a very good alternative for bio-ethanol production to meet the energy needs of the country. Sweet sorghum is drought resistant, water logging resistant and saline-alkaline tolerant. Growing sweet sorghum for ethanol production is relatively easy and economical and ethanol produced from sweet sorghum is eco-friendly. In view of this, it is important to identify superior genotypes for ethanol production in terms of percent juice brix, juice extractability, total fermentable sugars, ethanol yield and fermentation efficiency. This paper presents the study on the variability observed for the production of ethanol by various sweet sorghum genotypes in a laboratory fermentor. Five Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) genotypes were evaluated for ethanol production from stalk juice (Keller, SSV 84, Wray, NSSH 104 and BJ 248). Sweet sorghum juice differs from cane juice mainly in its higher content of starch and aconitic acid. Data were collected for biomass yield; stalk sugar yield and ethanol production in five genotypes. Maximum ethanol production of 9.0%w/v ethanol was obtained with Keller variety (20% sugar concentration was used), and decreased for other genotypes. A distiller's strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (gifted by Seagram Distilleries Ltd.) was employed for fermentation. The fermentation efficiency (FE) was 94.7% for this strain. High biomass of yeast was obtained with BJ 248 variety. When the similar experiments were conducted with unsterile sweet sorghum juice (15% sugar concentration) 6.47%w/v ethanol was produced. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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