Directorate of Rice Research ICAR

Rajendranagar, India

Directorate of Rice Research ICAR

Rajendranagar, India
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Khan M.R.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya | Handoo Z.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Rao U.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Rao S.B.,Ella Foundation | Prasad J.S.,Directorate of Rice Research ICAR
Journal of Nematology | Year: 2012

The foliar nematode Aphelenchoides besseyi causes white tip disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and floral malady in tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.). This nematode is widely distributed in the rice fields of many states of India, including West Bengal (WB), Andhra Pradesh (AP), Madhya Pradesh (MP) and Gujarat (GT). In order to generate information on intraspecific variations of A. besseyi as well as to confirm the identity of the nematode species infecting these important crops, morphological observation was undertaken of A. besseyi isolated from tuberose and rice from WB and rice from AP, MP and GT. The molecular study was only done for rice and tuberose populations from AP and WB. The variations were observed among the populations in the tail, esophageal and anterior regions, including the occurrence of four as well as six lateral lines in the lateral fields. The morphometrics of observed populations showed variations and those could be regarded as a consequence of host-induced or geographical variations. PCR amplification of the rDNA ITS 1 and 2 region of rice (AP) and tuberose (WB) populations of A. besseyi generated one fragment of approximately 830 bp, and the size of the ITS region was 788 bp and 791 bp for tuberose and rice population, respectively. Alignment of the two sequences showed almost 100% similarity. Blast analysis revealed a very high level of similarity of both the Indian strains to a Russian population. The Indian and Russian strains could be differentiated using restriction enzyme Bccl. Host tests revealed that rice (cv. IET 4094), oat (cv. OS-6) and teosinte (cv. TL-1) showed a typical distortion due to the infection of A. besseyi. Five germplasm lines of oat showed no infection of the nematode under field conditions. Local cultivars of onion, maize, chrysanthemum, gladiolus, and Sorghum halepense were also not infected by A. besseyi. © The Society of Nematologists 2012.

Divya B.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Divya B.,Directorate of Rice Research ICAR | Robin S.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Rabindran R.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Australasian Plant Pathology | Year: 2014

Blast disease is considered as a major limiting factor in the global rice production because of its wide distribution and destructiveness. Near Isogenic Lines (NILs) harboring different blast resistant Pi genes were surveyed for blast resistance along with resistant and susceptible varieties. These genotypes were randomly crossed to transfer disease resistance to agronomically superior varieties ADT 43, Improved White Ponni and BPT5204. Disease reaction was recorded in both artificial as well as natural epiphytotic conditions and differential response to blast disease incidence was observed. The minimum blast incidence was observed in F1s of ADT 43/CT13432-3R, ADT 43/C101A51 and ADT 43/C101LAC across the environments. Advanced back cross inbred lines developed from the cross combination ADT 43/CT13432-3R were also screened against blast disease. Gene pyramided back cross lines exhibited higher resistance than susceptible genotypes. Among the genotypes tested under epiphytotic conditions at different environments, lines with gene combinations Pi1 + Pi2 + Pi33 + Pi54 and Pi1 + Pi2 + Pi33 were highly resistant to blast disease than those with single genes indicating that these non-allelic genes have a complementary effect. Variation in resistance reaction was observed for the same gene when it acts alone or in combinations and also when the same genes were present in different genetic backgrounds. The gene pyramided lines developed in this study can serve as excellent donors for blast resistance in rice improvement and also for basic studies on gene-race interactions. © 2013 Australasian Plant Pathology Society Inc.

Divya B.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Divya B.,Directorate of Rice Research ICAR | Robin S.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Rabindran R.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2014

Marker assisted backcrossing breeding has become one of the essential tools in transferring novel genes to adapted varieties and was employed to pyramid three blast resistance genes Pi1, Pi2 and Pi33 to a popular susceptible rice variety ADT43. Gene pyramiding process was facilitated by marker aided selection for both foreground as well as background genotype. Previously reported linked molecular markers were deployed to survey resistant and susceptible genotypes. In the BC3F1 generation four lines viz, AC-B3-11-7, AC-B3-11-36, AC-B3-11-57, AC-B3-11-83 were identified to be pyramided with three genes and subjected to background analysis and a genome recovery up to 95 % was observed and advanced to further generations. Morphological, yield and grain quality traits were significantly similar to ADT43. The introgressed lines with three gene combinations were highly resistant to the blast pathogen compared to genotypes with single genes and the susceptible checks under blast nursery screening at two epiphytotic locations; Coimbatore and Gudalur. The selected three gene pyramided backcross lines in the desirable background were advanced to obtain an improved ADT 43 with resistance to blast disease. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014.

Kumar R.M.M.,Agronomy | Brajendra,Directorate of Rice Research ICAR
Pestology | Year: 2014

The studies were made on the effectiveness of Metal Glycinates by initiating the trial in Rabi 2012-13 and repeated second season during Kharif 2013 on a deep black clayey soils at the Directorate of Rice Research farm, Hyderabad. Metal glycinates tested in the experiment being chelated products boosted micronutrient absorption, and bioavailability to rice plant. The compound is designed for foliar application to crops. From the analysis of the present experiment it is clear that Metal glycinate found effective in both the varieties tested and improved growth parameters and yield attributes and grain yield.

Siruguri V.,National Institute of Nutrition ICMR | Uday Kumar P.,National Institute of Nutrition ICMR | Raghu P.,National Institute of Nutrition ICMR | Rao V.V.M.,National Institute of Nutrition ICMR | And 12 more authors.
Indian Journal of Medical Research | Year: 2012

Background & objectives: The present study was carried out on stored rice variety PAU 201 in Punjab that was not permitted for milling and public distribution due to the presence of damaged grains at levels exceeding the regulatory limits of 4.75 per cent. The aim of the study was to determine fungal and aflatoxin contamination in the rice samples to assess hazard from the presence of damaged grains. Presence of iron in discoloured rice grains was also assessed. Methods: Stored samples of paddy of PAU 201 rice variety were collected from six districts of Punjab, milled and analysed for presence of fungal and aflatoxin contamination. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and Prussian blue staining was used to determine fungal spores and presence of iron, respectively. Results: Aflatoxin analysis of rice samples indicated that none exceeded the Food Safety and Standards (Contaminants, Toxins and Residues) Regulations, 2011 tolerance limit of 30 μg/kg and majority of the samples had levels <15 μg/kg. The proportion of damaged grains exceeding the limit of 5 per cent was observed in 85.7 per cent of the samples. SEM and Prussian blue staining and EDX analysis of black tipped and pin point damaged rice grains did not show presence of fungal structures and presence of iron. Interpretation & conclusions: The results of the study indicated that the stored rice samples did not pose any health concern with respect to aflatoxin contamination as per the criteria laid down by the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India.

Salgotra R.K.,Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology | Gupta B.B.,Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology | Ahmed M.I.,Directorate of Rice Research ICAR
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2012

Thermo-sensitive genic male sterility (TGMS) is the genic sterile system in plants that affects the fertility/sterility response to temperature in hybrid rice breeding. Eight TGMS lines, DDR 1S, DDR 18S, DDR 19S, DDR 20S, DDR 23S, DDR 27S, DRR 28S and DDR 29, showed satisfactory seed-set percentage at high altitude, but complete sterility at low altitude. Characterization of sterility-sensitive stage and floral traits were determined by the tracking method. At low altitude, with an average air temperature of 35.4 °C, TGMS lines DRR 19S, DRR 20S and DRR 29S displayed a sterility-sensitive stage at 21 days prior to normal heading. The TGMS line DRR 1S required a temperature of 36.6 °C for complete sterility at 17 days prior to normal heading. In the remaining seven lines, the temperature for complete sterility ranged from 33.9 °C to 35.8 °C at low altitude. Angle of opened lemma and palea showed a significantly positive correlation with opening duration of lemma and palea and with size of stigma.

Mohan M.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research | Mohan M.,Directorate of Rice Research ICAR | Selvakumar G.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research | Sushil S.N.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research | And 2 more authors.
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2011

An endophytic Serratia marcescens strain SRM (MTCC 8708) isolated from the flowers of summer squash was found to be entomopathogenic against the larvae of Helicoverpa armigera. Natural epizootic of this bacterial strain on the larvae collected from summer squash flowers ranged from 19. 9 to 72. 3%. Under laboratory conditions, a dose of 6 × 1010 c. f. u./ml diet induced 66. 3% mortality of first instar H. armigera larvae. Similarly all other growth and development parameters of the insect were severely retarded in a dose-dependent manner. The bacterium invaded the entire alimentary canal and haemolymph with successful replacement of all other gut-associated microflora. There was a great reduction in midgut proteinase activity due to inhibition of five major proteinase isozymes by S. marcescens infection. Further, a synergistic interaction between chitinases isolated from this strain and Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin was observed. The present findings suggest that this plant-associated S. marcescens strain SRM could be suitably exploited for the management of H. armigera. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Thalapati S.,Directorate of Rice Research ICAR | Guttikonda H.,Directorate of Rice Research ICAR | Nannapaneni N.D.,Directorate of Rice Research ICAR | Adari P.B.,Directorate of Rice Research ICAR | And 6 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2014

Parental line improvement is a prerequisite for developing high yielding rice hybrids. Wild rice are reservoirs of useful genes for yield traits and introgression lines (ILs) with higher yield have been reported. The present experiment was carried out according to line × tester mating design. 36 hybrids were phenotyped for yield and its components along with parental lines [6 cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines, 5 KMR3/Oryza rufipogon derived ILs and KMR3 as control]. The performance of hybrids was estimated based on relative heterosis, heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis for yield and its contributing characters along with analysis of variance for combining ability. We identified a set of good general combiners for yield traits (testers: IL50-7, IL86-18, IL50-12 and CMS lines: IR79156A, APMS6A). Of the 36 hybrids tested, four hybrids IR79156A/IL50-13, IR58025A/IL50-12, APMS6A/IL86-18 and APMS10A/IL363-5 showed significantly high specific combining ability and standard heterosis and APMS6A/IL86-18 showed highest yield. Heterosis for yield/plant ranged from 17.6 to 84.9 % and heterobeltiosis from 18.5 to 77.4 % at P < 0.05. Standard heterosis ranged from 20 to 63 % in hybrids derived from ILs compared to hybrid check Karnataka Rice Hybrid-2. Only 7 out of 36 hybrids showed significantly higher yield than their respective controls. O. rufipogon allele of QS15 within sub-QTL3 of qyld2.1 was common in these seven hybrids. These results demonstrate that introgressions from wild species have the potential to enhance yield significantly in popular rice hybrids. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Chakravarthi M.,ICAR Sugarcane Breeding Institute | Syamaladevi D.P.,ICAR Sugarcane Breeding Institute | Syamaladevi D.P.,Directorate of Rice Research ICAR | Harunipriya P.,ICAR Sugarcane Breeding Institute | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2016

In genetic engineering, inducible promoters play an important role as the expression of genes driven by them can be turned on or off under situations like biotic or abiotic factors. There are few reports on inducible promoters that can be employed in the development of transgenic plants, particularly in sugarcane. In the present study, four wound inducible genes (Chitinase, PR1A, PR10 and HRGP) were selected and were amplified from Erianthus arundinaceus, a distant relative of sugarcane. In order to determine the gene that is highly induced upon wounding, RT-qPCR was performed, which showed that PR10 gene expression was instantaneous and higher upon wounding when compared to the other three genes. Using the random amplification of genomic ends technique, a 592 bp promoter sequence was obtained and in silico analysis of the upstream regulatory region revealed a 469 bp promoter and 123 bp of 5′ untranslated region (UTR). Functional analyses of the promoter sequence (with and without 5′ UTR) in tobacco, rice and sugarcane using β-glucuronidase (GUS) as the reporter gene revealed the constitutive and inducible nature of the PR10 promoter. Our studies have demonstrated that the PR10 promoter, though highly constitutive, was quickly induced upon wounding as well as on treatment with abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate hormones. This is the first report on the isolation and characterization of a PR10 promoter from a wild grass and is expected to have application for development of transgenic plants. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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