Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research

Bharatpur, India

Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research

Bharatpur, India
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Sharma S.K.,North - Eastern Hill University | Rawat D.,Jai Narain Vyas University | Kumar S.,North - Eastern Hill University | Kumar A.,Jai Narain Vyas University | And 3 more authors.
Trees - Structure and Function | Year: 2010

Prosopis cineraria, an important multipurpose tree and vital component of the otherwise fragile ecosystem of arid and semiarid regions of India. It is highly drought tolerant and sprouts profusely during the extreme dry summer months when most other trees are leafless. P. cineraria is known to exhibit comparable genetic variations at intra-specific and inter-population levels reflected through morphological and cytogenetical diversity in regions, where this plant grows naturally. In the present study, single primer amplification reaction (SPAR) methods have been used for determination of diversity at DNA level in 30 accessions of P. cineraria collected from different districts of Rajasthan. The analyses include the use of six minisatellite core sequence primers for direct amplification of minisatellite DNA (DAMD), eight inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and 20 arbitrary primed decamer sequences for random amplification (RAPD) reactions. Upon analysis of the data generated, all the three SPAR methods, either independently and/or in combination, revealed wide range of genetic variation among accessions. Comparison of matrix of individual SPAR method using MxComp component of NTSYS-pc 2.02 K software proving that analysis of natural genetic variation using combination of SPAR methods particularly ISSR and DAMD, rather than an isolated approach, is very effective. Such an approach also yields better information and reflection of the relatedness and affinities at intra-species and inter-population levels. Therefore, it is opined that in order to reveal the intrinsic intra-specific variation, SPAR approaches involving more than one DNA marker may reveal more authentic genetic variation in tropical tree species like P. cineraria. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Thakur A.K.,Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry | Thakur A.K.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research | Saraswat A.,Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry | Srivastava D.K.,Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

A rapid and efficient protocol is developed for in vitro plantlet regeneration of Populus deltoides clone G48 using petiole explants. The highest frequency of shoot regeneration (74.75%) from petiole was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 0.50 mg/l BAP and 0.20 mg/l IAA. The regenerated shoots started turning brown and necrotic after 10-15 days in culture. To overcome the browning problem, the explants along with the developing shoot buds were transferred to modified MS medium containing 0.50 mg/l BAP, 0.20 mg/l IAA, 15 mg/l AdS, 0.1% PVP, 100 mg/l casein hydrolysate, 50 mg/l L-glutamine, 250 mg/l (NH 4) 2SO 4 and 0.5% agar. Shoot multiplication and elongation took place on the same medium. Indole-3-acetic acid at 0.10 mg/l was most effective for root regeneration. Using the current protocol, it took 2 months to regenerate plantlets. The in vitro regenerated plantlets were successfully acclimatized and established in greenhouse conditions. This regeneration system using petiole explants provides a foundation for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of P. deltoides clone G48 for incorporation of various silviculturally important traits. © 2011 Society for Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology.

Bhatt B.P.,P.A. College | Rathore S.S.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research | Lemtur M.,P.A. College | Sarkar B.,P.A. College
Renewable Energy | Year: 2016

The paper describes the fuelwood consumption and energy pattern in Eastern Himalaya. The fuelwood consumption was estimated to be 1.79, 2.12 and 3.07 ton/capita/year, respectively, in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate climate. The fuelwood availability was observed to be 8.47 m tons against the projected requirement of 22.21 m tons during the year 2001, indicating a deficit by with of 61.0% between demand and supply which is expected to increase to 77.0 and 83.0%, respectively, by the year 2011 and 2021. The data revealed that labour energy expenditure on firewood collection was highest (86.78 MJ/capita/year) in tropical zone and lowest (36.90 MJ/capita/year) in temperate region. Fuelwood energy consumption was, however, recorded highest in temperate region (51.88 MJ × 103/capita/year) as against of 30.25 MJ × 103/capita/year in tropical zone. Among various activities, cooking required maximum energy, followed by space heating. The estimated growing stock was not able to sustain the rate of fuelwood consumption. Hence, restoration of degraded lands is need of the hour not only to meet the energy requirements of the tribal folk but also to maintain the ecological balance in fragile eco-system of the region, where slash and burn agriculture has already caused severe environmental degradation. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Mawlong I.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research | Sujith Kumar M.S.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research | Singh D.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research
Phytochemistry Reviews | Year: 2014

Furan fatty acids (F-acids) are heterocyclic fatty acids having a furan ring in their structure. Most existing studies on F-acids are related to either fish or other marine animals. Even though F-acids have been detected in many plant species, not much work has been done exclusively in plants of economic importance, especially oilseed crops. This review focuses mainly on the functions and roles of F-acids in plants. In plants, they are bound to phospholipids by substituting PUFA and function as free radical scavengers suggesting their role in defense against oxidative stress. Owing to their antioxidative property F-acids are highly unstable and their photooxidative products can contribute to the flavor of edible oils. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

Kumar A.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research | Singh B.K.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research | Singh V.V.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research | Chauhan J.S.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2013

Six successful interspecific hybrid plants were obtained through sexual hybridization between Brassica rapa var. yellow sarson (NRCYS-05-02) (2n = 20, AA) and a wild species B. fruticulosa (2n = 16, FF), using the latter as pollen parent. Morphological, cytological and sequence tagged microsatellite sites (STMS) based molecular analyses were carried out to confirm the hybrid nature of F1s plants. The hybrid plants (2n = 18) were intermediate for most of the morphological attributes. A severe reduction (8.6%) in pollen fertility was recorded in F1. Nevertheless, few seeds were obtained from open pollination. Meiotic analysis revealed a mixture of bivalents and univalents in all the pollen mother cells (PMCs) analysed. However, 2II + 14I was the most frequently observed chromosome association. Presence of large number of univalents indicates lack of homology between pairing partners. Besides, bivalents and univalents, a trivalent was also observed in three PMCs, indicating segmental homology between chromosomes. The study suggests that B. fruticulosa has partial genome homoeology with B. rapa which could be exploited in crop improvement programmes, particularly breeding for tolerance to insect pests, especially mustard aphid.

Bala M.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research | Kumar S.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research | Singh L.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research
Indian Journal of Agricultural Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Total phenol, flavonoid and radical scavenging activity in methanolic extracts of seed meal from eight different Indian rapeseed-mustard varieties were determined. The methanolic extracts were found to have different levels of antioxidant properties in the 1, 1-diphenyl- 2-picryl hydrazine (DPPH) and 2, 2-azobis-3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) systems tested. B juncea variety Kanti showed good antioxidant properties amongst the varieties screened. Highest total phenol content was also observed in same variety (20.32 mg/g gallic acid equivalent (GAE). A significant correlation between DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenol content of different varieties of rapeseed-mustard was noted.

Meena P.D.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research | Sharma P.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research
Vegetos | Year: 2012

Present paper deal with the method for production and germination of oospores of Albugo candida in Brassica juncea which could be the easy source of screening for resistance under controlled conditions vigorously.

Bala M.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research | Singh M.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013

In the present study calibration models were developed for non destructive estimation of total phenol and crude fiber content in intact rapeseed mustard seed by Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy (FTNIR). Rapeseed-mustard (Brassica spp.) is an important group of oilseed crops in India. The defatted meal that is left after oil extraction is a high value by-product for animal nutrition and is also a potential source of protein for human nutrition. However the utilization of mustard meal in animal (monogastric livestock such as poultry and pigs) and human nutrition is limited due to high content of antinutritive compounds such as fiber and phenolic. In order to develop genotypes with low or high contents of phenol and fiber fast screening of existing genotypes is required. The traditional methods for estimation of total phenol and crude fiber are destructive and time consuming. A total of 115 rapeseed mustard genotypes were quantitatively analyzed for total phenol and crude fiber content by wet chemical methods, their Fourier transform near infrared spectra was correlated to resulting data by means of partial least square regression and calibration models were developed. The optimal models were achieved with coefficient of determination (R) 2 of 0.96 and 0.91 and root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 0.08 and 0.41 with residual predictive deviation (RPD) values of 4.98 and 3.37 for total phenol and crude fiber, respectively. Test validation resulted in RMSEP of 0.11 for total phenol and RMSEP of 0.28 was observed for crude fiber content. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Premi O.P.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research | Kandpal B.K.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research | Rathore S.S.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research | Shekhawat K.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research | Chauhan J.S.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013

An experiment was conducted for five-years (2005-06 to 2009-10) to evaluate the impact of Sesbania green-manuring (GM), mustard-residue recycling and fertilizers on soil health and productivity of Indian mustard under fallow-mustard sequence. Sesbania (GM) significantly increased SOC, carbon-sequestration-potential rate, infiltration rate, available NPK status but decreased bulk density. Supplementing mustard-residue recycling 2.5tha -1 further improved the soil quality attributes significantly. The increase in fertilizer from N 40P 8.7K 0 to N 80P 17.4K 33.3 also improved the soil attributes gradually. This improvement in soil properties due to Sesbania (GM) and mustard-residue recycling significantly influenced plant height, branches/plant, siliquae/plant, seeds/siliqua and ultimately seed and oil yield compared to existing fallow-mustard practice. The mustard seed yield was increased by 42.3% due to Sesbania (GM) and by 63.9% due to supplementary mustard residue recycling in five years. Increase in fertilizers levels from N 40 to N 80 and P 8.7 to P 17.4 significantly improved mustard yield attributes, seed and oil yield while results of K application was inconsistent. The combined application of N 80P 17.4K 33.3 synergistically increased the seed yield by 82.1% over N 40P 8.7K 0. Sustainability yield index, partial factor productivity, production efficiency and incremental benefit cost ratio also showed significant improvement due to Sesbania (GM), mustard-residue recycling and judicious fertilizer use. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Kumar S.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research | Chauhan J.S.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research | Kumar A.,Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard Research
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Using partial least square regression, calibration for non-destructive estimation of erucic acid and glucosinolate contents in seeds of rapeseed-mustard by Fourier transform near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (FT-NIRS) was developed. The calibration developed showed a very close relationship between the reference method for erucic acid (gas chromatography) and glucosinolate content (palladium complex formation) and NIR spectral data from 7502.1 to 5444.6 cm.-1 The coefficients of determinations were 97.16% and 98.34% for erucic acid and glucosinolate contents, respectively. © Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2010.

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