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Farooq M.,National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering NIBGE | Farooq M.,Lahore University of Management Sciences | Saliha U.,National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering NIBGE | Saliha U.,Directorate of Poultry Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Virology Reports | Year: 2014

Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious disease of many avian species and is particularly responsible for devastating disease outbreaks in commercial poultry flocks in Pakistan that incur huge economic losses to the national poultry industry annually. Despite implementation of an extensive vaccination program for poultry birds, the disease appears in an endemic form in commercial broiler and layer poultry farms. This study was conducted to identify the prevalent velogenic NDV strain responsible for disease outbreaks in commercial poultry farms in Punjab, Pakistan. The NDV strains isolated from pathological specimens through inoculation in embryonated chicken eggs were characterized biologically through the intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI), and genetically on the basis of the fusion (F) protein cleavage site. Among these, six NDV isolates showed an F protein cleavage site motif (112RRQKRF117) and an ICPI value ranging between 1.5 and 1.88, both are characteristics for velogenic strains of NDV. In addition, phylogenetic analysis based on a partial sequence of the F protein gene clustered these isolates within class II, genotype VII and specifically within genotype VII-e. This is the first report that demonstrated the presence of such NDV strains in commercial poultry farms in northern Punjab of Pakistan. © 2014. Source


Afzal F.,Directorate of Poultry Research Institute | Saliha U.,Directorate of Poultry Research Institute | Fawad N.,Directorate of Poultry Research Institute | Ahmed S.,Directorate of Poultry Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2015

Newcastle disease is a highly contagious disease of poultry and is cause of huge economic losses during 2011-2012 in Pakistan. Regardless of vaccination the disease has caused considerable mortalities in all types of poultry. In this study samples were taken from suspected flocks showing signs and symptoms of the disease. Isolation was done by chicken embryo inoculation and identification of the virus was done by Haemagglutination (HA) and Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) assay. Presence of the virus was confirmed by Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RTPCR). All of the four virus isolates were found velogenic when pathotyped on the basis of Mean Death Time (MDT) and Intra Cerebral Pathogenicity Index (ICPI). Killed Vaccine was prepared from Chicken/Broiler /Attock /2012 having maximum pathogenicity. Evaluation of the vaccine was done in randomly divided seven groups of broilers each having 42birds.One group was kept as control. These groups were vaccinated with different vaccines and different vaccine schedules. There was non-significant difference in HI log 2 titers of different groups. Vaccinated group in which priming with lentogenic strain, followed by vaccination with experimentally produced killed vaccine having local velogenic NDV strain and followed by boosting with lentogenic strain showed maximum protection (92.85%) against the challenge of local velogenic NDV isolate. © 2015, Pakistan Agricultural Scientists Forum. All Rights Reserved. Source


Afzal F.,Directorate of Poultry Research Institute | Saliha U.,Directorate of Poultry Research Institute | Fawad N.,Directorate of Poultry Research Institute | Ahmed S.,Directorate of Poultry Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2015

Newcastle disease is a highly contagious disease of poultry and is cause of huge economic losses during 2011-2012 in Pakistan. Regardless of vaccination the disease has caused considerable mortalities in all types of poultry. In this study samples were taken from suspected flocks showing signs and symptoms of the disease. Isolation was done by chicken embryo inoculation and identification of the virus was done by Haemagglutination (HA) and Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) assay. Presence of the virus was confirmed by Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RTPCR). All of the four virus isolates were found velogenic when pathotyped on the basis of Mean Death Time (MDT) and Intra Cerebral Pathogenicity Index (ICPI). Killed Vaccine was prepared from Chicken/Broiler /Attock /2012 having maximum pathogenicity. Evaluation of the vaccine was done in randomly divided seven groups of broilers each having 42birds.One group was kept as control. These groups were vaccinated with different vaccines and different vaccine schedules. There was non-significant difference in HI log 2 titers of different groups. Vaccinated group in which priming with lentogenic strain, followed by vaccination with experimentally produced killed vaccine having local velogenic NDV strain and followed by boosting with lentogenic strain showed maximum protection (92.85%) against the challenge of local velogenic NDV isolate. © 2015, Pakistan Agricultural Scientists Forum. All Rights Reserved. Source

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