Rama Rao S.V.,Directorate of Poultry Research
Asian Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2016
Objective: An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding of different levels of dietary crude protein (17.5,16.5 and 15.5%) with varying levels of lysine (0.77,0.73 and 0.68%) and methionine (0.36,0.34 and 0.32%) on performance of white leghorn layers from 34-53 weeks of age. Methodology: Each diet was fed adlibitumlo 12 replicates consisting of 88 birds in each replicate. Egg Production (EP), Feed Intake (Fl), gram of feed to produce gram of egg mass (FE), Egg Weight (EW) and Egg Mass (EM) were recorded at 28 days intervals. Results: Dietary reduction in protein levels had reduced (p<0.001) EP, FE, EWand EM during most of the period and overall experimental period whereas, Fl was not affected by dietary CP. The EP was lower (p<0.001) in the group fed with 15.5% CP diet than other groups. The FE was lower (p<0.001) in the group fed 17.5% CP. The EW was decreased (p<0.001) with reduction in dietary CP levels during different periods (except period 3 and 4) and overall experiment (34-53 weeks). Conclusion: From the results it was evident that a diet with 16.5% CP with 0.73% lysine and 0.34% methionine were essential to elicit optimum performance in the WL-layers. © 2016 S.V. Rama Rao et al.
Vinoth A.,Directorate of Poultry Research |
Ch S.R.C.,NTR University of Health Sciences |
Rao G.S.,NTR University of Health Sciences
International Immunopharmacology | Year: 2015
Inflammatory mediators play a crucial role in ulcerative colitis (UC). The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum 21 (LAB 21) on inflammatory mediators in trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. The inflammatory response was assessed by changes in colon morphology, histopathology, and measurement of reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (TBARS), nitric oxide (NO), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and interleukin 10 (IL-10) mRNA and protein levels by ELISA. Besides, protein expressions of IL-1β and IL-10 were also evaluated by western blot. Treatment with LAB 21 (1 × 1010 CFU/rat/day) and sulfasalazine (500 mg kg-1 body weight) for 14 days after induction of colitis, significantly decreased TBARS, NO and increased GSH concentration. The protein and mRNA expressions of IL-1β and TNFα were down-regulated, whereas, protein and mRNA expression of IL-10 was up-regulated in LAB 21-treated rats. Moreover, LAB 21 attenuated the macroscopic colonic damage, histopathological changes induced by TNBS. These results suggest that LAB 21 may be effective in the treatment of UC by immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
PubMed | NTR University of Health Sciences, Central Institute of Fisheries Education and Directorate of Poultry Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Tropical animal health and production | Year: 2016
A trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of lysine concentration in the diet of WL layers with constant ratio of other essential amino acids to lysine. Pullets (528) aged 25 to 36 weeks were fed with test diet containing two protein levels (13.36 and 15.78%) each with 5% concentration of lysine (0.50, 0.55, 0.60, 0.65, and 0.70) and a control with 17% CP and 0.70%, lysine. Each test diet was fed ad libitum to six replicates of eight birds for a period of 12 weeks. Egg production (EP), egg weight (EW), egg mass (EM), feed efficiency (g/g) (FE), body weight gain (BWG), Haugh unit (HU) and yolk colour (YC) were measured. Increased (P 0.05) EP, EW, EM, FE and BWG were obtained with increasing lysine concentration in diets. Whereas, feed intake/h/day, feed intake/egg, egg shell defects (ESD), mortality and shell thickness were not affected (P 0.05) by the concentration of lysine in diet. However, higher (P 0.05) HU score and YC were noticed at low lysine (0.50 %) concentrations. Based on this, it was concluded that WL layers (25-36 weeks) reared in open-sided houses in the tropics require approximately 0.70 % lysine (597.90 vs. 584.39 mg/h/day) in low (13.36% CP) and high (15.78% CP) protein groups in diets containing approximately 2700 kcal of ME/kg in summer.
PubMed | Indian Veterinary Research Institute, d Poultry Research, Directorate of Poultry Research, h Molecular Genetics and f Central Sheep Wool and Research Institute CSWRI
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal biotechnology | Year: 2016
Augmenting the meat production is among the primary breeding objective of genetic selection programs in poultry production. However, the knowledge about the expression of genes regulating muscle growth at the molecular level is inadequate. Activin type IIB receptor (ACTRIIB) has been reported to play vital role in the negative regulation of muscle growth by binding to multiple members of transforming growth factor- superfamily. The present investigation was carried out to comprehend the trend of ACTRIIB messenger RNA in pectoralis major muscle during embryonic (E5-20) and post embryonic age (days 1, 14, 28, and 42) in both Control Broiler (CB) and Aseel by using Real-time PCR. The expression profile of ACTRIIB gene displayed a similar trend in CB and Aseel, however Aseel showed significantly (P<0.001) higher transcription throughout the period. The fold change in expression of ACTRIIB in Aseel relative to CB varied from 3.94 to 14.72 folds and 3.28 to 7.14 folds during embryonic and post embryonic age, respectively. ACTRIIB exhibited its peak on E7, E11, and E16 during embryonic age, which coincides with the formation of primary and secondary muscle fibers in both lines. While at the time of post-embryonic age, ACTRIIB showed highest transcription on day 1 and lowest transcription on day 28 in both CB and Aseel. Within each line, the expression of ACTRIIB differed significantly (P<0.001) between days in the course of embryonic and post-embryonic period. ACTRIIB gene expression had significant (P<0.05) effect on all carcass traits except neck weight. Our results suggest that Aseel expressed higher levels of ACTRIIB transcript than CB. The study inferred that expression pattern of ACTRIIB was analogous in both CB and Aseel, which might imply that molecular mechanisms underlying muscle development and regulation are comparable in nature.
Padhi M.K.,Directorate of Poultry Research
World's Poultry Science Journal | Year: 2014
Coastal and rural parts of Odisha are home to indigenous ducks, which are mostly reared for meat and egg production. Cross performance of the indigenous duck with exotic breeds, along with the suitability of crossbreeds for commercial rearing in the region are highlighted in this review paper. The crossbreeds perform comparatively better for most economic traits compared to the indigenous duck. The cross of the indigenous duck (male) with the Khaki Campbell (female) perform better in respect to different growth and production traits. Indigenous ducks in combination with White Pekin perform better in respect to juvenile growth, carcass quality and egg production. Most of the economic traits have showed desirable heterosis in crossbreds. The performance of indigenous ducks kept under free range conditions, molecular characteristics, mortality pattern and disease incidence, nutritional, and haematological studies are included in this review. © World's Poultry Science Association 2014.
Kannaki T.R.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute |
Reddy M.R.,Directorate of Poultry Research |
Verma P.C.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute |
Shanmugam M.,Directorate of Poultry Research
Animal Biotechnology | Year: 2015
Toll-like receptors (TLRs), important components of innate immune response, play a pivotal role in early recognition of pathogen as well as in the initiation of robust and specific adaptive immune response. In the present study, the expression profile of chicken TLRs (TLR2A, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR7, TLR15, and TLR21) in various chicken embryonic tissues during embryo development was examined by real-time PCR assay. All the TLR mRNAs were expressed in whole embryonic tissue as early as 3rd embryonic day (ED). Four of the seven TLRs (TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR7) mRNA expressions were significantly (P < 0.01) higher at 12ED relative to expression at 3 ED, whereas TLR15 mRNA expression was significantly (P < 0.01) higher on 7ED and TLR5 and 21 were highly expressed on 18 ED. Among all the TLRs investigated TLR4 mRNA was the highest expressed and TLR15 mRNA expression was the lowest in all tissues during chicken embryo development. Tissue wise analysis of mRNA expression of TLRs showed that liver expressed significantly (P < 0.01) higher levels of most of the genes (TLR2, TLR4, and TLR21). However no significant difference was found in TLR15 mRNA expression among the tissues during development. Our results suggest the innate preparedness of chicken embryos and also a possible role for TLRs in the regulation of chicken embryo development that needs to be further evaluated. © 2015, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Shanmugam M.,Directorate of Poultry Research |
Vinoth A.,Directorate of Poultry Research |
Rajaravindra K.S.,Directorate of Poultry Research |
Rajkumar U.,Directorate of Poultry Research
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2014
The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the semen quality of roosters of different ages during hot climatic condition. Semen from roosters (n= 8/age group) of 23, 42 and 65 weeks of age was collected and evaluated for different physical parameters. The sperm membrane integrity was evaluated by hypo-osmotic swelling test, whereas sperm DNA fragmentation was assessed by Sperm Chromatin Dispersion (SCD) test. The seminal plasma cortisol level was assessed by EIA. The shed average Temperature Humidity Index (THI) during the experiment period was 79.32. Semen volume and sperm DNA fragmentation were significantly different (P≤ 0.05) between the age groups tested. Roosters of 42 weeks age had higher semen volume and lower sperm DNA fragmentation during study period. None of the other parameters were influenced by the age of the birds. The results indicated that semen quality was affected by the age of the birds. The extreme heat condition also appears to exert a negative influence on the sperm chromatin in roosters. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Bhattacharya T.K.,Directorate of Poultry Research |
Chatterjee R.N.,Directorate of Poultry Research |
Dushyanth K.,Directorate of Poultry Research |
Shukla R.,Directorate of Poultry Research
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2015
A study was conducted to characterize myostatin gene in broiler and layer chicken and to explore mRNA expression profile in these two varieties of chicken. The myostatin cDNAs of broiler and layer varieties were cloned and sequenced. The total length of the cDNA was 1128 bp. The differences of nucleotides between PB-1 broiler and IWI layer were C > 65 > T, C > 306 > T and C > 1094 > T while those between CB broiler and IWI layer were C > 65 > T, C > 195 > G, G > 234 > A, C > 306 > T, T > 939 > C, C > 961 > T, G > 966T and C > 1094 > T. The amino acid differences of myostatin protein between PB-1 and IWI strains were alanine > 22 > valine and proline > 365 > leucine while those between CB and IWI strains were alanine > 22 > valine, histidine > 321 > tyrosine and proline > 365 > leucine. The phylogenetic study revealed closeness of PB-1 and control broiler forming a cluster, which was also closely related to IWI layer chicken formed a separate cluster. The gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The gene expression profile in muscle was different between broiler and layer strains. Between two broiler strains, the pattern of expression was similar. Between IWI layer and either PB-1 or CB broilers, differences in expression was found at different time points, particularly at second, fourth and seventh weeks of age. The myostatin expression was significantly associated with body weights in chicken. It is concluded that myostatin gene sequences varied at nucleotide as well as amino acid level between broiler and layer chicken varieties and the gene also expressed differentially in these two varieties. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Karnati H.K.,National Institute of Animal Biotechnology NIAB |
Pasupuleti S.R.,University of Hyderabad |
Kandi R.,University of Hyderabad |
Undi R.B.,University of Hyderabad |
And 4 more authors.
Veterinary Research Communications | Year: 2015
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that sense the microbial pathogens are important components of host immune system. TLRs play key roles in the innate defence mechanism against pathogens, in the development of adaptive immunity, and are possibly the major determinants of the susceptibility to infections. To study the resistance pattern in different breeds of chicken, a comprehensive understanding of TLR4 signalling pathways is required. We investigated the TLR-4 pathway regulated gene expressions in PBMCs of chicken breeds of Broiler (Cobb), Aseel, Dahlem Red and Ghagus upon LPS treatment using Quantitative RT-PCR approach. Several genes were found to be up regulated in both TLR-induced MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent pathways. These genes include TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4), MyD88 (Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88), TRAF6 (TNF receptor associated factor 6), TRIF (TIR domain containing adapter inducing interferon beta), the transcription factors NFkB (Nuclear factor kappa B), IRF7 (Interferon regulatory factor 7) and IFN β (Interferon beta). We have also studied inflammatory cytokines such as IL2, IL6, IL8, IL1 β and TNF α to further understand the downstream signalling of TLR4 pathway. These results showed that higher expression of TLR signalling activation via both MyD88-dependent and TRIF-dependent pathways are more beneficial to chicken mononuclear cells mediated innate immunity. We observed TRIF dependent pathway in Aseel and Ghagus breeds. Our results are in concurrent with general observation that Aseel breed is comparatively more resistant, Ghagus and broilers are moderately resistant and Dahlem Red is comparatively more susceptible to bacterial infections. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Shanmugam M.,Directorate of Poultry Research |
Rama Rao S.V.,Directorate of Poultry Research
Animal Production Science | Year: 2015
Ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenoloic constituent in fruits and nuts, has been shown to have antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary EA supplementation on semen quality parameters in chickens. Forty roosters (Dahlem Red breed), 28 weeks of age, were randomly assigned to four groups and fed diets containing EA at 0, 25, 50, or 75 mg/kg for 8 weeks. Semen was evaluated for volume, appearance, individual motility, sperm concentration, 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye reduction test, and live, dead and abnormal sperm counts. The seminal plasma was separated and evaluated for protein, alkaline phosphatase, and lipid peroxidation. At the end of the experiment, blood from individual birds was collected, and serum was separated and evaluated for superoxide dismutase activity, lipid peroxidation, and ferric-reducing ability of plasma. Supplementation with EA had no effect (P > 0.05) on gross semen parameters. Seminal plasma protein and lipid peroxidation were different (P < 0.01) between the treatment groups. The group fed EA at 75 mg/kg had high (P < 0.01) seminal plasma lipid peroxidation and lower (P < 0.05) serum superoxide dismutase activity. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of EA in chickens had no effect on the gross semen qualities and increased lipid peroxidation in seminal plasma. © CSIRO 2015.