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Rama Rao S.V.,Directorate of Poultry Research
Asian Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2016

Objective: An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding of different levels of dietary crude protein (17.5,16.5 and 15.5%) with varying levels of lysine (0.77,0.73 and 0.68%) and methionine (0.36,0.34 and 0.32%) on performance of white leghorn layers from 34-53 weeks of age. Methodology: Each diet was fed adlibitumlo 12 replicates consisting of 88 birds in each replicate. Egg Production (EP), Feed Intake (Fl), gram of feed to produce gram of egg mass (FE), Egg Weight (EW) and Egg Mass (EM) were recorded at 28 days intervals. Results: Dietary reduction in protein levels had reduced (p<0.001) EP, FE, EWand EM during most of the period and overall experimental period whereas, Fl was not affected by dietary CP. The EP was lower (p<0.001) in the group fed with 15.5% CP diet than other groups. The FE was lower (p<0.001) in the group fed 17.5% CP. The EW was decreased (p<0.001) with reduction in dietary CP levels during different periods (except period 3 and 4) and overall experiment (34-53 weeks). Conclusion: From the results it was evident that a diet with 16.5% CP with 0.73% lysine and 0.34% methionine were essential to elicit optimum performance in the WL-layers. © 2016 S.V. Rama Rao et al.

Day-old chicks (120) were randomly distributed to 4 dietary groups with 6 replicate in each and raised for 42 days under uniform managemental conditions to determine the effect of supplementing organic zinc (zinc glycinate, Zn-gly) at lower levels on skin quality, haematological and serum biochemical constituents. Dietary treatments consisted of adding 30, 20 and 10 ppm Zn from Zinc glycinate and 40 ppm Zn (NRC 1994) from ZnSO4 (inorganic) (control) to a corn-soybean meal basal diet prepared as per NRC (1994) nutritional requirements, except Zn. Feed and water was provided ad-libitum. Haematological and serum biochemical constituents were estimated in blood collected at 35 d. At the end of experiment, representative samples of skin were collected from slaughtered birds for histological examination. Haematological constituents (WBC, RBC, Hb concentration, PCV, MCV and lymphocyte concentration), serum total protein, albumin and glucose concentrations did not vary with concentration (10-40 ppm) and source (ZnSO4 or Zn-gly) of Zn supplementation in diet. The cholesterol and albumin to globulin ratio was lowest (P<0.05), while globulin, Zn concentrations and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in serum was highest (P<0.05) at 30 ppm Zn supplementation from Zn- gly compared to other groups and these attributes were comparable between 20 ppm Zn as Zn-gly and 40 ppm Zn as ZnSO4. An increased epithelial cell layer and collagen content was observed with 30 ppm Zn supplementation as Zn-gly compared to other dietary treatments. While epithelium cell layers and collagen content was moderate with addition of 40 ppm Zn as ZnSO4 or 20 ppm Zn as Zn-gly. The skin of birds supplemented with 10 ppm Zn from Zn-gly had few epithelial layers and low amount of collagen. Higher ALP activity indicating higher bioavailability, better skin quality and globulin concentration in serum was observed in birds fed 30 ppm Zn from Zn-gly compared to 40 ppm Zn supplemented from inorganic source. Reducing the dietary Zn supplementation by 50% (20 ppm) from organic Zn had comparable skin quality, serum ALP activity and globulin concentration as 100% (40ppm) supplementation from inorganic source. © 2015, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. All rights reserved.

Padhi M.K.,Directorate of Poultry Research
World's Poultry Science Journal | Year: 2014

Coastal and rural parts of Odisha are home to indigenous ducks, which are mostly reared for meat and egg production. Cross performance of the indigenous duck with exotic breeds, along with the suitability of crossbreeds for commercial rearing in the region are highlighted in this review paper. The crossbreeds perform comparatively better for most economic traits compared to the indigenous duck. The cross of the indigenous duck (male) with the Khaki Campbell (female) perform better in respect to different growth and production traits. Indigenous ducks in combination with White Pekin perform better in respect to juvenile growth, carcass quality and egg production. Most of the economic traits have showed desirable heterosis in crossbreds. The performance of indigenous ducks kept under free range conditions, molecular characteristics, mortality pattern and disease incidence, nutritional, and haematological studies are included in this review. © World's Poultry Science Association 2014.

Karnati H.K.,National Institute of Animal Biotechnology NIAB | Pasupuleti S.R.,University of Hyderabad | Kandi R.,University of Hyderabad | Undi R.B.,University of Hyderabad | And 4 more authors.
Veterinary Research Communications | Year: 2015

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that sense the microbial pathogens are important components of host immune system. TLRs play key roles in the innate defence mechanism against pathogens, in the development of adaptive immunity, and are possibly the major determinants of the susceptibility to infections. To study the resistance pattern in different breeds of chicken, a comprehensive understanding of TLR4 signalling pathways is required. We investigated the TLR-4 pathway regulated gene expressions in PBMCs of chicken breeds of Broiler (Cobb), Aseel, Dahlem Red and Ghagus upon LPS treatment using Quantitative RT-PCR approach. Several genes were found to be up regulated in both TLR-induced MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent pathways. These genes include TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4), MyD88 (Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88), TRAF6 (TNF receptor associated factor 6), TRIF (TIR domain containing adapter inducing interferon beta), the transcription factors NFkB (Nuclear factor kappa B), IRF7 (Interferon regulatory factor 7) and IFN β (Interferon beta). We have also studied inflammatory cytokines such as IL2, IL6, IL8, IL1 β and TNF α to further understand the downstream signalling of TLR4 pathway. These results showed that higher expression of TLR signalling activation via both MyD88-dependent and TRIF-dependent pathways are more beneficial to chicken mononuclear cells mediated innate immunity. We observed TRIF dependent pathway in Aseel and Ghagus breeds. Our results are in concurrent with general observation that Aseel breed is comparatively more resistant, Ghagus and broilers are moderately resistant and Dahlem Red is comparatively more susceptible to bacterial infections. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Vinoth A.,Directorate of Poultry Research | Ch S.R.C.,NTR University of Health Sciences | Rao G.S.,NTR University of Health Sciences
International Immunopharmacology | Year: 2015

Inflammatory mediators play a crucial role in ulcerative colitis (UC). The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum 21 (LAB 21) on inflammatory mediators in trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. The inflammatory response was assessed by changes in colon morphology, histopathology, and measurement of reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (TBARS), nitric oxide (NO), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and interleukin 10 (IL-10) mRNA and protein levels by ELISA. Besides, protein expressions of IL-1β and IL-10 were also evaluated by western blot. Treatment with LAB 21 (1 × 1010 CFU/rat/day) and sulfasalazine (500 mg kg-1 body weight) for 14 days after induction of colitis, significantly decreased TBARS, NO and increased GSH concentration. The protein and mRNA expressions of IL-1β and TNFα were down-regulated, whereas, protein and mRNA expression of IL-10 was up-regulated in LAB 21-treated rats. Moreover, LAB 21 attenuated the macroscopic colonic damage, histopathological changes induced by TNBS. These results suggest that LAB 21 may be effective in the treatment of UC by immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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