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Azeem M.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Riaz A.,University of Queensland | Chaudhary A.N.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Hayat R.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | And 3 more authors.
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2015

Plants respond to their external environment to optimize their nutrition and production potential to minimize the food security issues and support sustainable agriculture system. Phosphorus (P) is an important nutrient for plants and is involved in plant metabolic processes. It is mostly available as orthophosphate and has a tendency to form complexes with cations. It has low mobility in soil, thus becoming unavailable for plant uptake that causes a reduction in plant growth and yield. Besides free P, phytate is the major form of organic P in soil and plant tissues. Phytases obtained from different sources, that is, plants, animals, and microorganisms, catalyze the hydrolysis of phytate and release available forms of inorganic P. The knowledge of mechanisms involved in catalytic activity of phytase obtained from microorganisms in soil is limited. This review summarizes the role of microbial phytase in releasing organic P by hydrolysis of phytate and factors affecting its activity in the soil. © 2014, © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


Nadeem M.,Gomal University | Iqbal J.,Directorate of Pest Warning and Quality Control of Pesticides | Khattak M.K.,Gomal University | Shahzad M.A.,Arid Zone Research Institute
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2012

Studies were conducted in the Grain Research Training and Storage Management Cell, Department of Agri-Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during 2006-07 to evaluate the effect of different doses (2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%) of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed extract and Tumha (Citrullus colocynthis L.) fruit ethanol extracts on Tribolium castaneum. The effect of neem seed extract at tested concentrations against the test insect was dose dependent; as the 64.44%, 55.92%, 47.77% and 35.93% mortality recorded at 10%, 7.5%, 5% and 2.5% concentrations, respectively. The interaction effect of 10% neem seed extract and 72 h exposure gave 73.33% kill, which was significantly (P=0.05)more than the percent kill of the other concentrations and exposure time. Similarly, the C. colocynthis at 10% killed 44.07% T. castaneum which was significantly (P=0.05) more than the control and other concentrations of the same extract used in the experiment. The exposure of T. castaneum to the media treated with C. colocynthis for 72 h has a signifant effect on its mortality. The interaction effect of 10% Citrullus colocynthis extract at 72 h exposure gave 50% kill, which was significantly more than the other concentrations and time of exposure. The insecticidal effect of these chemicals on the population build up of T. casteneum was dose and exposure time dependent. Copyright 2012 Zoological Society of Pakistan.


Rashid A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Younas M.U.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ehetisham-ul-Haq M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Farooq M.,Directorate of Pest Warning and Quality Control of Pesticides | And 5 more authors.
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2014

Gram is an important pulse crop extensively grown in the arid and semi-arid zones of Pakistan. Ascochyta blight is a devastating disease of the gram. Thirty varieties/lines were screened against gram blight disease to evaluate the resistant germplam. None of the varieties/lines were immune to infection. 8032, Thal-2006, 06001 and 5CC-109 were resistant in response. Four varieties/line, Bital-98, 03008, PB-2000 and Noor-91, were moderately resistant while 12 were moderately susceptible. Susceptible response was observed in seven (05030, 900156, C-88, M-2008, Balkassar-2000, and Punjab-2000) varieties/lines and three (K8000, 03009 and 05014) were highly susceptible. Two consecutive sprays of five bio-products were done on five gram lines, i.e. 06001, 03008, 093127, 05007 and 05014. Minimum disease incidence was noted on the 06001 line. Vampire was most effective in disease controlling after seven and 14 days of both sprays. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

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