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Johnson T.S.,Reliance Life science Pvt. Ltd | Eswaran N.,Reliance Life science Pvt. Ltd | Sujatha M.,Directorate of Oilseeds Research
Plant Cell Reports | Year: 2011

With the increase in crude oil prices, climate change concerns and limited reserves of fossil fuel, attention has been diverted to alternate renewable energy sources such as biofuel and biomass. Among the potential biofuel crops, Jatropha curcas L, a non-domesticated shrub, has been gaining importance as the most promising oilseed, as it does not compete with the edible oil supplies. Economic relevance of J. curcas for biodiesel production has promoted world-wide prospecting of its germplasm for crop improvement and breeding. However, lack of adequate genetic variation and non-availability of improved varieties limited its prospects of being a successful energy crop. In this review, we present the progress made in molecular breeding approaches with particular reference to tissue culture and genetic transformation, genetic diversity assessment using molecular markers, large-scale transcriptome and proteome studies, identification of candidate genes for trait improvement, whole genome sequencing and the current interest by various public and private sector companies in commercial-scale cultivation, which highlights the revival of Jatropha as a sustainable energy crop. The information generated from molecular markers, transcriptome profiling and whole genome sequencing could accelerate the genetic upgradation of J. curcas through molecular breeding. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Kammili A.,Directorate of Oilseeds Research
Plant Breeding | Year: 2013

Genetic male sterility (GMS) exists naturally in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). In the existing safflower GMS lines, sterile and fertile plants are distinguishable at flowering. This causes delay in fertile plants rouging and reduction in hybrid purity. In this investigation, a cross between a spiny GMS parent 13-137 and a spiny non-GMS parent 'A1' was effected. One sib cross, SC-67, producing non-parental-type non-spiny sterile and spiny fertile plants in F3 was advanced to F9 through sib crossing between non-spiny sterile and spiny fertile plants. Mendelian digenic segregation was not observed for non-spiny trait and male sterility. The results revealed strong linkage between these traits. The linkage was confirmed in F2 generations of crosses between a non-spiny marker-linked GMS line (MGMS) and five elite lines. Male sterility-linked non-spiny trait could distinguish sterile and fertile plants at elongation stage. The MGMS would be useful in production of pure F1 hybrid seed and development of elite populations. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Anjani K.,Directorate of Oilseeds Research
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2012

Castor (Ricinus communis L., 2n= 2x= 20) is grown across the world in tropical, sub-tropical and warm temperate regions. Castor oil has more than 700 industrial uses and its global demand is rising constantly at 3-5% per annum. Vast castor germplasm collections are being conserved in more than 50 genebanks across the world. But consolidated reports on their status and value are not available to tap their potential. Utilization of vast global germplasm could only be enhanced when the information on germplasm is shared and seed are exchanged. Therefore, the review provides information on current status of global castor collections and an overall view of potential of these collections besides highlighting the challenges and opportunities facing germplasm. This report serves as a unique starting point for the global castor community to build strong multinational collaborations to facilitate knowledge and resource integration and coordinated research planning. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Francis G.,JATROPOWER AG | Oliver J.,JATROPOWER Bio Trading Pvt. Ltd | Sujatha M.,Directorate of Oilseeds Research
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013

Jatropha curcas has been intensively investigated recently as a biodiesel feedstock producer because of its adaptability to adverse soil and climatic conditions. It has been seen that increasing value from by-products of oil production is important for the viability of the crop for the farmers. The seed kernel meal left after oil extraction is potentially of high market value as an animal feed ingredient. Every kilogram of oil produced from jatropha seeds generates about 0.75. kg of high quality seed kernel meal. It has a high protein content (65% on a dry matter basis) with a favourable amino acid composition, but is toxic because of the presence of compounds called phorbol esters. We introduce a non-toxic jatropha variety where phorbol esters are absent in the seeds and hence, the kernel meal can be included in animal feeds after conventional heat treatment similar to that done for soybean meal. Preliminary observations in a field trial indicates that there are non-toxic jatropha provenances that are similar to or better than the conventional toxic jatropha varieties in seed yield per plant and seed oil content. Non-toxic jatropha has potential as a viable bio-oil crop if high quality seeds are used for developing the plantation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Anjani K.,Directorate of Oilseeds Research
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2010

Diverse sources of extra-earliness are required for breeding high yielding extra-early castor (Ricinus communis L.) cultivars. Twenty-three extra-early accessions and four checks were evaluated from 2003-2004 to 2007-2008. Variance components for 14 traits and correlation coefficients were estimated. Significant genotypic differences were observed for these traits. Number of main stem nodes, days to 50% flowering and days to maturity exhibited high σg 2 and non-significant σg × e 2 interactions. They showed significant high positive correlations with each other and very low associations with yield and its components. Yield exhibited moderate associations with its components except 100-seed weight. Cluster analysis grouped the entries into four groups. All 23 accessions exhibited stable performance for extra-early maturity. Accessions were identified for high oil content, high yield and high per day productivity. The promising accessions identified and the information generated would be useful for breeding extra-early cultivars as well to study inheritance of extra-earliness. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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