Directorate of Oilseeds Research

Hyderabad, India

Directorate of Oilseeds Research

Hyderabad, India
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Hegde D.M.,Directorate of Oilseeds Research
Current Science | Year: 2012

The carrying capacity of Indian agriculture to support oilseeds production to meet the vegetable oil needs of the Indian population has been considered in the context of available sources of oil from oilseed and nonoilseed origins. India needs to produce 17.84 Mt of vegetable oils to meet the nutritional fat needs of projected population of 1685 million by 2050. This can be easily achieved from various sources like annual oilseeds and also from supplementary sources of oil like rice bran, cottonseed, coconut, oil palm, corn, etc. However, the actual vegetable oil consumption has already exceeded the nutritional needs by a large margin and is likely to further go up sharply in the years to come in response to income growth. This requirement will be difficult to meet by the Indian agriculture given the current status of resources, technology and management.

Francis G.,JATROPOWER AG | Oliver J.,JATROPOWER Bio Trading Pvt. Ltd | Sujatha M.,Directorate of Oilseeds Research
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013

Jatropha curcas has been intensively investigated recently as a biodiesel feedstock producer because of its adaptability to adverse soil and climatic conditions. It has been seen that increasing value from by-products of oil production is important for the viability of the crop for the farmers. The seed kernel meal left after oil extraction is potentially of high market value as an animal feed ingredient. Every kilogram of oil produced from jatropha seeds generates about 0.75. kg of high quality seed kernel meal. It has a high protein content (65% on a dry matter basis) with a favourable amino acid composition, but is toxic because of the presence of compounds called phorbol esters. We introduce a non-toxic jatropha variety where phorbol esters are absent in the seeds and hence, the kernel meal can be included in animal feeds after conventional heat treatment similar to that done for soybean meal. Preliminary observations in a field trial indicates that there are non-toxic jatropha provenances that are similar to or better than the conventional toxic jatropha varieties in seed yield per plant and seed oil content. Non-toxic jatropha has potential as a viable bio-oil crop if high quality seeds are used for developing the plantation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Johnson T.S.,Reliance Life science Pvt. Ltd | Eswaran N.,Reliance Life science Pvt. Ltd | Sujatha M.,Directorate of Oilseeds Research
Plant Cell Reports | Year: 2011

With the increase in crude oil prices, climate change concerns and limited reserves of fossil fuel, attention has been diverted to alternate renewable energy sources such as biofuel and biomass. Among the potential biofuel crops, Jatropha curcas L, a non-domesticated shrub, has been gaining importance as the most promising oilseed, as it does not compete with the edible oil supplies. Economic relevance of J. curcas for biodiesel production has promoted world-wide prospecting of its germplasm for crop improvement and breeding. However, lack of adequate genetic variation and non-availability of improved varieties limited its prospects of being a successful energy crop. In this review, we present the progress made in molecular breeding approaches with particular reference to tissue culture and genetic transformation, genetic diversity assessment using molecular markers, large-scale transcriptome and proteome studies, identification of candidate genes for trait improvement, whole genome sequencing and the current interest by various public and private sector companies in commercial-scale cultivation, which highlights the revival of Jatropha as a sustainable energy crop. The information generated from molecular markers, transcriptome profiling and whole genome sequencing could accelerate the genetic upgradation of J. curcas through molecular breeding. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Sri Shilpa K.,Directorate of Oilseeds Research | Kumar V.D.,Directorate of Oilseeds Research | Sujatha M.,Directorate of Oilseeds Research
Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture | Year: 2010

Reproducible and highly efficient protocols for shoot regeneration and genetic transformation mediated by Agrobacterium have been established for safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA 4404 with gus reporter gene and hygromycin (hpt gene) as plant selection marker was used as the plant transformation vector. Genetic transformation experiments were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of various parameters such as genotype, seedling age, co-cultivation period, bacterial titer, enzymatic pre-treatment of target tissues, use of compounds that induce vir-gene enhancer, acetosyringone (AS), explant type and explant injury to enhance transformation efficiency. Transformation frequency was high when root and hypocotyl explants of 8-day-old seedlings of safflower cv. HUS-305 were co-cultivated with bacterial cell density of 0.5 OD 600 during a period of 2 days followed by selection regime of 10-15-15 mg/l hygromycin. The frequency of rooting of the primary transformants was low (18.0%) when compared with the regenerated shoots (70.0%), and seven shoots survived on transfer to soil. The putative transformants were confirmed by β-glucuronidase (GUS) histochemical assay, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and Southern blot analysis. With the optimized transformation protocol, putative transformed shoots were obtained with frequency of 51.0% within 8-10 weeks of culture initiation. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Mukta N.,Directorate of Oilseeds Research | Sreevalli Y.,Directorate of Oilseeds Research
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2010

The leguminous tree Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre has been receiving considerable attention since its role as a feed stock for biodiesel production was defined and confirmed. Policy makers, scientists as well as farmers have turned their attention to this species with great gusto since the benefits to be derived affect all the stakeholders. Tremendous interest has been generated for raising organized plantations of this untapped species. This has created the need for technology for its propagation and management. Though studies have been conducted on many aspects, the information is scattered. With this in view, the literature on important aspects of propagation, evaluation of genetic resources and improvement has been reviewed to glean the available information which can form the guidelines for raising of plantations to meet the current need. This review also aims to assist in the identification of gaps in information while preventing duplication of research efforts and unnecessary outflow of valuable resources. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kammili A.,Directorate of Oilseeds Research
Plant Breeding | Year: 2013

Genetic male sterility (GMS) exists naturally in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). In the existing safflower GMS lines, sterile and fertile plants are distinguishable at flowering. This causes delay in fertile plants rouging and reduction in hybrid purity. In this investigation, a cross between a spiny GMS parent 13-137 and a spiny non-GMS parent 'A1' was effected. One sib cross, SC-67, producing non-parental-type non-spiny sterile and spiny fertile plants in F3 was advanced to F9 through sib crossing between non-spiny sterile and spiny fertile plants. Mendelian digenic segregation was not observed for non-spiny trait and male sterility. The results revealed strong linkage between these traits. The linkage was confirmed in F2 generations of crosses between a non-spiny marker-linked GMS line (MGMS) and five elite lines. Male sterility-linked non-spiny trait could distinguish sterile and fertile plants at elongation stage. The MGMS would be useful in production of pure F1 hybrid seed and development of elite populations. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Anjani K.,Directorate of Oilseeds Research
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2012

Castor (Ricinus communis L., 2n= 2x= 20) is grown across the world in tropical, sub-tropical and warm temperate regions. Castor oil has more than 700 industrial uses and its global demand is rising constantly at 3-5% per annum. Vast castor germplasm collections are being conserved in more than 50 genebanks across the world. But consolidated reports on their status and value are not available to tap their potential. Utilization of vast global germplasm could only be enhanced when the information on germplasm is shared and seed are exchanged. Therefore, the review provides information on current status of global castor collections and an overall view of potential of these collections besides highlighting the challenges and opportunities facing germplasm. This report serves as a unique starting point for the global castor community to build strong multinational collaborations to facilitate knowledge and resource integration and coordinated research planning. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Nizampatnam N.R.,Directorate of Oilseeds Research | Dinesh Kumar V.,Directorate of Oilseeds Research
Plant Molecular Biology | Year: 2011

The present work was aimed at developing vector construct(s) suitable for restoring fertility in transgenic male sterile tobacco plants expressing male-sterility-inducing ORFH522 in tapetal cell layer (Nizampatnam et al. Planta 229:987-1001, 2009). PTGS vectors that could produce either intron spliced hairpin RNA against the orfH522 or induce silencing of orfH522 by heterologous 3′UTR region were developed using the selected 316bp (orf316) fragment of orfH522. The constructs were independently mobilized into Agrobacterium and used for transforming tobacco. The T 1 generation plants carrying the restorer gene cassettes in homozygous condition were identified and crossed with the male sterile transgenic tobacco plants to obtain the hybrid seeds. PCR analysis of hybrid plants indicated segregation for the sterility inducing cassette while all the plants carried the restorer cassette. Hybrid plants produced fertile pollen grains and formed normal capsules upon selfing. Further molecular analyses of these hybrid plants with RT-PCR, Northern blotting and siRNA detection, revealed that intron interrupted hairpin RNA (ihp-RNA) mediated gene silencing was more effective compared to silencing by heterologous 3′UTR (SHUTR) as indicated by the complete degradation of orfH522 transcripts and formation of higher levels of orf316 specific siRNA molecules in plants carrying ihp-RNA restorer construct. Segregation analyses of F 2 (selfed hybrid) plants confirmed the co-segregation of gene cassettes and the traits in Mendelian di-hybrid ratio (9:3:3:1). Taken together, the results established that intron hairpin and transitive RNAi mediated silencing of orfH522 transcripts restored fertility in transgenic male sterile tobacco plants expressing orfH522 and ihp-RNA was more efficient in silencing orfH522 transcripts. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Mulpuri S.,Directorate of Oilseeds Research | Muddanuru T.,Directorate of Oilseeds Research | Francis G.,JATROPOWER AG
Plant Science | Year: 2013

Thirty six start codon targeted (SCoT) primers were used for characterization of 48 accessions of Jatropha curcas from different countries and include material with genetic variation for levels of phorbol esters, yield, seed oil content, test weight and plant type. SCoT analysis revealed high polymorphism and 74% of the primers generated polymorphic profiles. The SCoT6 primer discriminated edible and toxic accessions in a single reaction while the SCoT26 and 27 primers produced amplicons specific to toxic and non-toxic accessions, respectively. The polymorphic SCoT markers obtained with these three primers were converted to sequence characterized amplicon regions (SCARs) which resulted in codominant SCARs with SCoT6 primer and dominant SCARs with SCoT 26 and 27 primers. The codominant nature of SCoT6 primer and the resultant SCAR6 primer were validated on intraspecific hybrids derived from a cross between non-toxic and toxic accessions. The accession JP38 from Madagascar was found to be distinct and showed accession specific bands with 9 different SCoT primers. Sequence analysis of polymorphic amplicons obtained with SCoT6 primer showed a 65. bp deletion in accessions with low/zero phorbol esters. Diversity analysis separated the toxic and non-toxic accessions into two groups and the accessions JP29 and JP48 from Mexico formed a third cluster. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Anjani K.,Directorate of Oilseeds Research
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2010

Diverse sources of extra-earliness are required for breeding high yielding extra-early castor (Ricinus communis L.) cultivars. Twenty-three extra-early accessions and four checks were evaluated from 2003-2004 to 2007-2008. Variance components for 14 traits and correlation coefficients were estimated. Significant genotypic differences were observed for these traits. Number of main stem nodes, days to 50% flowering and days to maturity exhibited high σg 2 and non-significant σg × e 2 interactions. They showed significant high positive correlations with each other and very low associations with yield and its components. Yield exhibited moderate associations with its components except 100-seed weight. Cluster analysis grouped the entries into four groups. All 23 accessions exhibited stable performance for extra-early maturity. Accessions were identified for high oil content, high yield and high per day productivity. The promising accessions identified and the information generated would be useful for breeding extra-early cultivars as well to study inheritance of extra-earliness. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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