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Kalaji H.M.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences | Schansker G.,Avenue des Amazones 2 | Ladle R.J.,Federal University of Alagoas | Goltsev V.,Sofia University | And 25 more authors.
Photosynthesis Research | Year: 2014

The aim of this educational review is to provide practical information on the hardware, methodology, and the hands on application of chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence technology. We present the paper in a question and answer format like frequently asked questions. Although nearly all information on the application of Chl a fluorescence can be found in the literature, it is not always easily accessible. This paper is primarily aimed at scientists who have some experience with the application of Chl a fluorescence but are still in the process of discovering what it all means and how it can be used. Topics discussed are (among other things) the kind of information that can be obtained using different fluorescence techniques, the interpretation of Chl a fluorescence signals, specific applications of these techniques, and practical advice on different subjects, such as on the length of dark adaptation before measurement of the Chl a fluorescence transient. The paper also provides the physiological background for some of the applied procedures. It also serves as a source of reference for experienced scientists. © 2014 The Author(s). Source

Behera S.K.,Directorate of Oil Palm Research | Shukla A.K.,Indian Institute of Science | Singh M.V.,Indian Institute of Science | Wanjari R.H.,Indian Institute of Science | Singh P.,Indian Institute of Science
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2015

Zinc (Zn) deficiency in soils and field crops is widespread across the world, including India, resulting in severe reduction in yield. Hence, soil application of Zn fertilizers is recommended for ameliorating Zn deficiency in soil and for obtaining higher crop yield and better crop quality. Zinc sulfate is commonly used Zn fertilizer in India because of its solubility and less cost. However, good quality and adequate quantity of zinc sulfate is not available in the market round the year for farmers' use. Field experiments were therefore conducted during rainy season of 2010 and 2011 at research farm of Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, India to assess the influence of Zn application through zinc sulfate monohydrate (33% Zn), zinc polyphosphate (21% Zn) and Zn ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) (12% Zn) on yield and micronutrient concentration and uptake by maize (Zea mays L.). In both the years, grain and vegetative tissue (stover) yield of maize increased significantly with successive application of Zn up to 1 kg ha−1 added through zinc sulfate monohydrate and zinc polyphosphate. Addition of 2.5 kg Zn ha−1 did not increase yield further but resulted in highest stover Zn concentration. Zinc, copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and iron (Fe) concentration in maize grain varied from 22.2 to 27.6, 1.6 to 2.5, 3.5 to 4.7 and 19.9 to 24.5 mg kg−1 respectively in both the years. Maize stover had 25.9 to 36.2, 7.9 to 9.8, 36.7 to 44.9 and 174 to 212 mg kg−1 Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe, respectively. Zinc application did not influence Cu, Mn and Fe concentration in both grain and stover of maize. Transfer coefficients (TCs) of micronutrients varied from 0.72 to 0.95, 0.18 to 0.30, 0.08 to 0.13 and 0.10 to 0.15 for Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe respectively. Total Zn uptake significantly increased with Zn application from 0.5 to 2.5 kg ha−1 supplied through zinc sulfate monohydrate and zinc polyphosphate. Recovery efficiency of Zn declined with increased Zn rates. © 2015, Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Saravanan L.,Directorate of Oil Palm Research | Chaudhary V.,Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research
Journal of Applied Horticulture | Year: 2012

Dichromia orosia (Cramer), a near monophagus pest was observed to cause severe defoliation to its host plant, anthmool (Tylophora asthmatica Wight and Arn.), an important medicinal plant used in Ayurvedic formulations to treat asthma world over. Biology and seasonal activity o. The pest was studied during 2009-10 at Anand, Gujarat. Though incidence was observed throughou. The year, however. The pest activity was more during July, August, December, January and February months. The pest completed its life cycle in 24.53±0.40 days (Eggs 3-4, larvae 10-14 and pupae 6-7 days). The longevity o. The male and female was 15.70±0.68 and 19.70±0.42 days, respectively. Each female laid an average of 178.5±17.66 eggs, mostly o. The under surface o. The leaves in 12.20±0.49 days of oviposition period. The larvae developed through fi ve instars in 12.9±0.35 days and pupal period lasted for about 6.8±0.11 days. Correlation of peak pest population periods with corresponding and previous Standard Meteorological Weeks (SMW) revealed that prevalence of maximum temperature (27.5-30.2°C) mean temperature 29.31 °C, high RH and low rainfall recorded in increase of larval population. Source

Behera S.K.,Directorate of Oil Palm Research | Shukla A.K.,Indian Institute of Science
Land Degradation and Development | Year: 2015

Land degradation is a global problem. Best management of degraded land can be done by evaluating the spatial variability of soil properties including chemical properties of degraded land and mapping such variations. Since, a significant portion of arable land in India is chemically degraded due to soil acidity; the present study was conducted to study the spatial variability of soil acidity (pH), electrical conductivity (EC), soil organic carbon (OC) content, exchangeable potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) contents in some cropped acid soils of India. A total of four hundred (one hundred from each series) representative surface (0-0.15m depth) soil samples were collected from arable soils representing four soil series namely Hariharapur, Debatoli, Rajpora and Neeleswaram situated in Orissa, Jharkhand, Himachal Pradesh and Kerala states of India, respectively, and were analyzed. Soil acidity (pH between 3.90 and 6.45) showed a low variability, in contrast to other soil properties, which showed moderate variability. The coefficients of variation varied from 32.4 to 74.3, 31.2 to 50.9, 45.6 to 100, 71.9 to 93.0 and 59.0 to 79.8% for EC (mean between 0.05 and 0.09dSm-1), OC (mean between 0.29 to 1.86%), exchangeable K+ (mean between 39.1 and 77.7mgkg-1), Ca2+ (mean between 148 and 293mgkg-1) and Mg2+ (mean between 111 and 191mgkg-1), respectively. Soil pH and OC content were positively and significantly correlated with exchangeable K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ content. Geostatistical analysis revealed that the best fit models were gaussian, exponential and spherical for different soil properties with moderate to strong spatial dependency. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Ravichandran G.,ICAR Central Potato Research Station | Ravichandran G.,Directorate of Oil Palm Research | Venkatasalam E.P.,ICAR Central Potato Research Station | Manorama K.,ICAR Central Potato Research Station
Indian Journal of Horticulture | Year: 2015

Potato microtubers produced from tissue culture were subjected to coating with three bio-polymers (chitosan, gelatin and chitin) in four doses. Gelatin at 0.75 and 1.00% is effective in reducing the storage loss considerably up to 125 days after harvest without affecting the germination. The storage losses were drastically reduced in gelatin and chitosan treated microtubers due to improvement in sprout thickness to the tune of 47 and 25 per cent when compared with control. The stand establishment of gelatin treated microtubers in the field was higher by 23 per cent over control which significantly resulted in higher yield by nearly 47 per cent than the untreated tubers. © 2015 Horticulture Society of India. All rights reserved. Source

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