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Chatterjee A.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants | Kumar S.,Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research | Chattopadhyay S.K.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
Biomedical Chromatography | Year: 2013

A simple, rapid, accurate and reproducible reverse-phase HPLC method has been developed for the identification and quantification of two alkaloids ephedrine and cryptolepine in different extracts of Sida species using photodiode array detection. Baseline separation of the two alkaloids was achieved on a Waters RP-18 X-terra column (250×4.6mm, 5μm) using a solvent system consisting of a mixture of water containing 0.1% Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and acetonitrile in a gradient elution mode with detection at 210 and 280nm for ephedrine and cryptolepine, respectively. The calibration curves were linear in a concentration range of 10-250μg/mL for both the alkaloids with correlation coefficient values >0.99. The limits of detection and quantification for ephedrine and cryptolepine were 5 and 10μg/mL and 2.5 and 5μg/mL, respectively. Relative standard deviation values for intra-day and inter-day precision were 1.22 and 1.04% for ephedrine and 1.71 and 2.06% for cryptolepine, respectively. Analytical recovery ranged from 92.46 to 103.95%. The developed HPLC method was applied to identify and quantify ephedrine and cryptolepine in different extracts of Sida species. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Samanta J.N.,Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research | Mandal K.,Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research | Mandal K.,Mushroom | Maiti S.,Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2013

Guggal (Commiphora wightii (Arnott) Bhandari comb. nov.) is a small tree which is tapped for medicinally important oleo-gum-resin. Naturally infected plant oozes oleo-gum-resin from its trunk and primary branches. However, in either case, the plant dies slowly after oozing. A bacterium was established to be responsible for these phenomena. Four isolates of this bacterium were characterised by biochemical tests, Biolog GN2 microplate reaction, rDNA sequencing, which suggested that the pathogen belonged to the genus Xanthomonas. However, phylogenetic analysis based on chaperone protein (dnaK) gene, TonB-dependent receptor (fyuA) gene, DNA gyrase B (gyrB) gene and RNA polymerase sigma factor (rpoD) gene sequences placed it as a member of X. axonopodis 9. 2 rep-PCR/DNA-DNA homology cluster close to X. perforans, X. alfalfae and X. euvesicatoria. Further elucidation of phylogenetic position of the test strains was achieved from a gyrB based tree considering sequences from 71 representative strains. Test strains were confirmed to be members of X. axonopodis. These had very narrow infectivity limited to Commiphora spp. Hence, we propose a novel pathovar, X. axonopodis pv. commiphoreae pv. nov. as the cause of gum oozing in guggal. Pathotype is DXA 01 = CFBP 7580 = LMG 26789. © 2012 KNPV.


Samantaray S.,Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research | Dhagat U.M.,V.V. Nagar | Maiti S.,Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research
Plant Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Studies were undertaken to assess genetic relationships in seven species of Plantago and to evaluate the genetic variance within populations of P. ovata (Forsk.), P. indica (L.), P. arenaria (Waldst.), P. psyllium (Linn.), P. lanceolata (Linn.), P. serraria (Linn.) and P. coronopus (Linn.) by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. A total of 629 distinct DNA fragments ranging from 0.25 to >3.0 kb pwere amplified using 75 selected random decamer primers. The cluster analysis indicated that the seven species of Plantago formed three major clusters: the first one consisted of three species and the second and third one represented by two species only. A maximum similarity of 85% was observed in P. arenaria and P. psyllium. Plantago indica shared up to 5% similarity with P. ovata. The wide genetic distance was observed within populations of different Plantago species. Thus, these RAPD markers have the potential for conservation of identified clones and evaluation of genetic relatedness among the species. This is also helpful in breeding programme and provides a major input into conservation biology. © 2010 The Japanese Society for Plant Cell and Molecular Biology.


Saravanan L.,Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research | Chaudhary V.,Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research
International Journal of Pest Management | Year: 2016

The spotted ladybird beetle, Epilachna vigintioctopunctata (F.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is an important pest of solanaceous medicinal plants in India. In this study, we investigated population growth potential of E. vigintioctopunctata in the laboratory at 28 ± 1°C with 80% ± 5% RH and 14:10 L:D photoperiod on seven solanaceous medicinal plants, viz. Solanum nigrum (L.), Datura metel (L.), Datura alba (L.), Solanum surattense Burm. (F.), Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (wild) and cultivars of W. somnifera, viz. “JA 20” and “JA 134”. The lowest rate of population growth occurred on D. metel, where immature development time, immature survival and pre oviposition period were highest, and fecundity was lowest (183.96 eggs per female). The highest growth rate occurred on S. surrattense and fecundity was also highest (637.08). The lowest net reproductive rate (Ro) (56.60) and the intrinsic rate of population increase (rm) (0.07) were obtained on D. metel and were highest on S. surattense (305.90 and 0.14 respectively). The mean generation time (T) was shortest on S. surattense (40.95 days). Using these measures, it is recognized that E. vigintioctopunctata performance was best on S. surattense and worst on D. metel. The findings of this study will contribute to the development of effective integrated pest management strategies for E. vigintioctopunctata on cultivated W. somnifera. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


Raju S.,Central Tuber Crops Research Institute | Shah S.,Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research | Gajbhiye N.,Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research
Indian Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2013

The production of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants is influenced by quality of light. Two senna cultivars (ALFT 2 and Sona) were studied under field conditions at four different light levels (25, 50, 70 and 100 % of full sunlight) for photosynthetic performance and sennoside accumulation. The cultivar ALFT 2 recorded highest P n values of 31.27 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 at 100 days after sowing (DAS), whereas Sona recorded the highest value of 30.7 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 at 60 DAS under 100 % light. Lowest P n values of 12.1 and 11.07 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 were recorded in ALFT 2 (120 DAS) and Sona (150 DAS), respectively under 25 % light. Sennoside A reduced by 30 % under 25 % light in leaf tissue of ALFT 2, whereas, a reduction of only 16 % was observed in Sona. Highest sennoside B content was observed in ALFT 2 under full sun light (2.03 %). ALFT 2 recorded comparatively higher total sennosides (4.76 %) in pods than Sona (4.57 %) under full light. The gradual decline in P n with later growth stages could be the reason for steady decline in sennosides content, particularly in the leaves and pods of both the cultivars. © 2013 Indian Society for Plant Physiology.


Samantaray S.,Indian Central Rice Research Institute | Phurailatpam A.,Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research | Bishoyi A.K.,Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research | Geetha K.A.,Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research | Maiti S.,Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2012

The Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to amplify DNA segments, with the objective of finding markers linked to sex determination in male and female plants of Piper betle L. Two bulks of DNA were made drawing one each from male and female, by pooling an equal volume of DNA samples from each group of individual contributing to the bulk analysis. Fifty different random decamer primers were screened with the two bulks to identify markers associated with sex expression of which only four primers were found to be associated with sex expression. These four primers were then tested with individual plant DNA samples where sex-associated RAPD markers were identified. A ~1,400 and ~850 bp fragment from the primer OPA04 and OPN 02 respectively was found to be present in all the male individuals and absent in all the female plants. In another primer, a ~980 bp amplification product from the primer OPC 06 was present only in the female individuals. A common primer OPA 08 showed both male and female specific markers of 650 and 1,200 bp respectively. Thus, the three male- specific RAPD markers OPA04 1400, OPA08 650 and OPN02 850 and two female-specific markers OPA08 1200 and OPC06 980 can reliably differentiate the male and female plants of P. betle L. Ploidy comparison also showed the differences in male and female plants. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Dhanani T.,Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research | Shah S.,Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research | Gajbhiye N.A.,Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research | Kumar S.,Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research
Arabian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2013

Withnaia somnifera (L.) is a wonder herb with multiple medicinal properties. Its root is used in the preparation of many Ayurvedic medicines. Withanolides, steroidal lactones, present in the root are active chemical markers, however, phenolics, and flavonoids have also been reported in the root of this plant. In most of the herbal preparations, water extraction is carried out using the infusion or decoction preparation process. In the present study, extract yield, phytochemical constituents such as total phenol and withanolide content of water and water-alcohol extracts prepared using two most commonly used extraction techniques, also known as "Green Extraction" techniques, ultrasound and microwave assisted solvent extraction were compared with the conventional extraction method. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was also determined using DPPH and ABTS methods of antioxidant assay. Extract yield, chemical composition of the extracts (total phenol and withanolide content) and antioxidant activity of the extracts varied with the extraction process as well as solvent composition. © 2013 King Saud University.


Das M.,Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2014

An investigation was carried out to study the impact of sowing date and row spacing on yield components and swelling factor of Plantago indica during 2009-10 & 2010-11 at Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research (DMAPR), Anand, Gujarat. Its an endeavour and a step forward to develop Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) in this newly introduced species. In this study, the sowing dates in five levels (30 October, 15 November, 30 November, 15 December and 30 December) and row spacings in six levels (50 × 15 cm, 60 × 15 cm, 65 × 15 cm, 70 × 15 cm, 75 × 15 cm and 80 × 15 cm) were evaluated. Results of experiment revealed that there were significant differences for sowing date and spacing effects on plant height, number of branch per plant, number of spikes per plant, number of grains per plant, biological yield and grain yield. The maximum grain yield belonged to sowing date 15 November and row spacing 50 cm. Maximum number of spikes per plant and grains per plant also belonged to 50 cm row spacing which resulted in increasing grain yield in this row spacing. The results revealed that sowing between 15-30 November is the best time for sowing in P. indica with suitable spacing either at 50 or 60 × 15 cm. However, seeds sown on 30 November showed significantly more swelling (12.0 cc/g) compared to those sown on other dates. Swelling factor varied from 9.0 to 12.0 cc/g. Hence, it can be concluded that the sowing date played an important role on the growth parameters and seed characteristics of Plantago indica. However, swelling factor in this species is a matter of concern which was not much influenced by these factors.


Bansal R.,Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research
Ecology, Environment and Conservation | Year: 2016

Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata) is an economically important medicinal plant and is a seed propagated crop. Storage conditions play important role in determination of seed germination potential. In the present study, effect of storage was studied on seed germination behaviour in Kalmegh. Germination of seeds was carried out under controlled conditions at a 25°C with 16 h light and 8 h dark regime. More than 80% germination was recorded in the samples stored for three years. Mean germination reduced with increase in the aging and was 6.33% after 6 years of storage. Seed viability as well as seed moisture content also reduced significantly with increase in the storage period. In fresh seeds, viability was 98.5% and seed moisture was reported to be 9.05%. Reduction in germination as well as viability was drastic as seed moisture approached below 8.0%. Present study showed that in Kalmegh, germination decreased below 50% after four years storage and seed moisture content < 8% was critical in determining seed germination potential. Copyright © EM International.


Samantaray S.,Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research | Maiti S.,Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research
Biologia Plantarum | Year: 2010

Rapid micropropagation was achieved in Chlorophytum borivilianum Santapau and Fernandes using shoot base as explants. Multiple shoots were induced on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with 3.0 mg dm-3 6-benzylaminopurine, 0.1 mg dm-3 1-naphthaleneacetic acid, 150 mg dm-3 adenine sulphates and 3 % saccharose. Rooting was readily achieved upon transferring the shoots onto half strength MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg dm-3 indolebutyric acid and 2 % saccharose. Micropropagated plantlets were hardened in the greenhouse and successfully established in soil. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to evaluate the genetic stability of the micropropagated plants. Thirty one arbitrary decamers were used to amplify genomic DNA from in vitro and in vivo plant material to assess the genetic stability. All RAPD profile analysis from micropropagated plants was genetically similar to mother plants.

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