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Hannan A.,Directorate of Land Reclamation | Ahmad M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Niaz A.,Ayub Agriculture Research Institute | Ali L.,Adaptive Research Center | Waheed T.,Engro Fertilizer Ltd
Soil and Environment | Year: 2010

Tube well water quality is the major contributing factor towards the low yield of crops in Pakistan, as it is not fit for irrigation in most of the areas. This is a survey study in which100 water samples collected from farmer's tube wells were evaluated for their quality characteristics. The data depicted the average values of ECiw, SARiw and RSCiw corresponding to 1.93 ± 0.67 dS m-1, 12.2 ± 65.00 (mmol L-1)0.5 and 3.6±1.96 mmol L-1, respectively. The range values noted for different water quality indications were 0.78 ≥ ECiw < 3.12 dS m-1, 2.57 ≥ SARiw ≥ 23.98 (mmole L-1)0.5 and 0.10 ≥ RSCiw < 7.10 mmole L-1. Within the conventional water quality indicators a significant correlation was found between SARiw and ECiw (r=0.84**) showing that SARiw is a function of total salinity in irrigation water. However, RSCiw and ECiw were not significantly correlated (r=0.32). The significant correlation coefficients showed an increase in SAR and EC of soil with the use of irrigation water of high ECiw and SAR. The wheat yield harvested from the fields irrigated with tube well water was found to be more affected by the sodicity compared with salinity of water, each having corresponding values of 2.08 ≥ SAR < 22.38 (mmole-1)0.5 and 1.03 ≥ ECe ≤ 4.31dS m-1. A statistically justified model (R2=0.934) Y = 8317[ECe]0.177[ECiw]0.883 / [SARiw]0.396[SARs]0.416 [RSCiw]0.382 was developed to predict wheat yield trend under a given set of soil and water characteristics. It was concluded that subsoil water of the region is of poor quality and should not be exploited by the farmers through private tube wells. Its injudicious use would salinize or sodicate the soils. © 2010, Soil Science Society of Pakistan. Source


Ashraf M.,University of Sargodha | Afzal M.,University of Sargodha | Ahmad R.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ali S.,Directorate of Land Reclamation | And 3 more authors.
Soil and Environment | Year: 2011

The adequate supply of mineral nutrients through chemical fertilizers and manure may help to sustain the crop productivity and ensure plant survival under salinity stress. A field study was conducted on saline sodic soil (ECe = 13 dS m-1, SAR 23.3 (mmol L-1)1/2, pH = 8.6 of surface 15 cm layer) to quantify the effects of potassium (K) and farm yard manure (FYM) on two wheat genotypes differing in salinity tolerance. Three K levels (0, 80, 120 kg ha-1) and two FYM levels (0, 10 t ha-1) were tested using randomized compete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The application of K along with FYM reduced Na+ uptake and accumulation in plant tissue. The K concentration and K+/ Na+ ratio were significantly improved in both wheat genotypes with the supplementation of K and FYM. The grain yield was improved by 40-156% in salt tolerant genotype and 46-206% in salt sensitive genotype with added K and FYM. Similar trend was observed in yield components. Ameliorative effects of added K and FYM were more marked in salt sensitive genotype (Auqab-2000) than in salt tolerant (Inqlab-91). Grain yield of salt sensitive and salt tolerant wheat genotypes was positively correlated with leaf K+ concentration determined at various treatments. Addition of K along with FYM decreased sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and electrical conductivity (EC) of soil particularly in upper layers. Therefore, it is concluded that K along with FYM could help to alleviate deleterious effects of salts and thus improve the productivity of salt affected soils. © 2011, Soil Science Society of Pakistan. Source


Tahir M.A.,University of Sargodha | Tahir M.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Rahmatullah,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Aziz T.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ashraf M.,Directorate of Land Reclamation
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2010

We studied the growth and ionic composition of five wheat genotypes (Inqlab-91, Uqab 2002, SARC-1, SARC-3, and SARC-5) grown under salinity stress to applied silicon. Plants were grown with three levels of salinity [0, 60, and 120 mM sodium chloride (NaCl)] in the presence of 0, 2, and 4 mM Si in nutrient solution for 40 days. Salinity stress significantly decreased shoot and root biomass in plants with varying degrees. Genotype SARC-3 exhibited higher salt tolerance than other genotypes. Silicon (Si) application significantly (P < 0.05) increased plant biomass at both control as well as under saline conditions. Genotypes differed significantly for their response to applied Si in terms of biomass production. Silicon application significantly (P < 0.01) increased potassium (K +) concentration in shoots. Enhanced salinity tolerance in wheat by Si application was attributed to increased K + uptake thereby increasing K +/sodium (Na +) ratio and lower Na + translocation towards shoot. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Younis A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Riaz A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Mushtaq N.,Directorate of Land Reclamation | Tahir Z.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Siddique M.I.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2015

The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential benefits and risks of the sewage water and recycled treated water on three ornamental plant species, including Umbrella plant (Cyperus alternifolius), Euonymus (Euonymus japonicas), and Dracaena (Cordyline terminalis). Plants in the pots were irrigated with equal volumes of water in 2-day intervals. Treatment plants were analyzed for sodium (Na), potassium (K), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and lead (Pb) concentrations, in roots and shoots. The experiment was conducted by using a completely randomized design (CRD) with five replications. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance technique and least significance difference (LSD) test was applied at 5% probability level. Plants species performed better in sewage water after recycled water, in terms of growth, number of leaves, chlorophyll content, and leaf thickness, which proved sewage water accelerates the growth and development of ornamental foliage plants, but plants irrigated with this water exhibited greater concentration of Pb than other treatments. © , Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Hannan A.,Directorate of Land Reclamation | Arif M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ranjha A.M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Abid A.,Agricultural Research Institute AARI | And 2 more authors.
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2011

Ustochrept soil was collected from a major potato-growing area in Pakistan for a potassium (K) adsorption isotherm experiment. Adsorption data were fitted to Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models. Results showed that the Freundlich model (R2 = 0.96**) fit the data better than did the Langmuir model. Fertilizer rates were calculated based on the Freundlich model and targeted solution K levels at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, and 27 mg K L-1. A field experiment was then conducted on the soil to assess the effect of various soil solution K levels (0-27 mg L-1, with K fertilizer rates at 0, 24, 49, 75, 101, 128, 155, 182, 210, and 237 kg ha-1), on tuber yield and quality along with 300 kg N and 250 kg P2O5 ha-1 as basal doses. Yield response models (linear plus plateau, quadratic, square root, quadratic plus plateau, and exponential) were used to calculate the optimal fertilizer rate for potato crop. Linear plus plateau model fit the data with less bias than the other models. There was a significant effect of K use on the yield and quality of potatoes. Potassium fertilizer application at 130 kg K ha-1, which is equivalent to a soil solution level of 12 mg K L-1, maximized the tuber yield of potato. However, for the improvement in tuber dry matter, reducing sugars, protein contents, and starch contents, the soil solution K level required was as high as 14.62 mg L-1 (157 kg ha-1). Even greater rate of K, 17.74 mg L-1 (190 kg ha-1), was needed to maximize vitamin C content in potato. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

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