Directorate of Groundnut Research ICAR

Jūnāgadh, India

Directorate of Groundnut Research ICAR

Jūnāgadh, India
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PubMed | Directorate of Groundnut Research ICAR and Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Indian journal of microbiology | Year: 2014

Haloarchaea are predominant in the salt crystallizers of the Rann of Kutch when the concentration of salts approaches saturation levels. The obligate and extreme halophilic archaeon 3A1-DGR, isolated from a salt crystallizer pond of the Little Rann of Kutch, India, needs minimum of 10% NaCl in the growth medium. To understand the mechanism(s) of osmotolerance and adaptation at extreme osmolarity, and to mine relevant gene(s), the genome of this haloarchaeon, 3A1-DGR, was sequenced. We report here, the 2.88Mb draft genome sequence of the haloarchaeon 3A1-DGR, with G+C content of 68% and the possible involvement of 43 genes in stress tolerance. Further studies of the genome of this haloarchaeon would be required to identify gene(s) that might be responsible for imparting extreme osmotolerance.

Chakraborty K.,Indian Agriculture Research Institute | Sairam R.K.,Indian Agriculture Research Institute | Bhaduri D.,Directorate of Groundnut Research ICAR
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2016

The present study was conducted to assess the effect of soil salinity on yield attributes as well as nutrient accumulation in different plant parts of seven Brassica cultivars from two different species raised in pot culture experiment with two levels of salinity treatments along with control corresponding to soil electrical conductivity (EC) values of 1.65 (S0), 4.50 (S1) and 6.76 (S2) dS m−1. The experiment was consisted of twelve replications in a completely randomized design. Imposition of salinity stress affected various yield attributing characters including plant height, which ultimately led to severe yield reduction. However, tolerant cultivars, CS 52 and CS 54 performed better under salt treatment showing lesser yield loss. Salinity stress reduced the nitrogen (N) content in leaves of the Brassica plants, which reflected in decreased seed protein content. Reduced accumulation of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) was observed in leaf, stem and root at flowering and post-flowering stages, while CS 52 and CS 54 showed less reduction than susceptible cultivars under salinity stress. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Singh A.L.,Directorate of Groundnut Research ICAR | Nakar R.N.,Directorate of Groundnut Research ICAR | Chakraborty K.,Directorate of Groundnut Research ICAR | Kalariya K.A.,Directorate of Groundnut Research ICAR
Photosynthetica | Year: 2014

In the present study, the physiological efficiencies of 181 mini-core peanut accessions (genotypes) were evaluated according to variability in their physiological performance in the field during summer (2012). Genotypes were categorized into groups of high, medium, and low physiological activity. Thirty-four genotypes showed high net photosynthetic rate (PN > 33 μmol m−2 s−1), 28 genotypes exhibited high stomatal conductance (gs > 0.54 mmol m−2 s−1), 33 genotypes manifested high transpiration rate (E > 11.8 mmol m−2 s−1), 30 genotypes performed with high water-use efficiency (WUE > 3.8), 30 genotypes reached high chlorophyll SPAD values (SCMR > 40), and 35 genotypes showed high maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm > 0.86). In addition, few genotypes showed high values for multiple physiological traits. A total of 54 genotypes exhibited higher values in two, 20 genotypes showed a high value in three, and in eight genotypes, high values occurred in four different physiological traits. Interestingly, only two genotypes, NRCG 14493 and 14507, showed high values for five different traits. Positive correlation was observed between gs and PN, E, and gs, and between PN and Fv/Fm, while WUE and E showed a negative correlation. The genotypes with high PN, gs, and WUE coupled with high SCMR and Fv/Fm could be used in peanut crop improvement programme for yield enhancement as well as stress tolerance. © 2014, The Institute of Experimental Botany.

Sherathia D.,Directorate of Groundnut Research ICAR | Dey R.,Directorate of Groundnut Research ICAR | Thomas M.,Directorate of Groundnut Research ICAR | Dalsania T.,Directorate of Groundnut Research ICAR | And 2 more authors.
Legume Research | Year: 2016

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) thrive in the rhizosphere of plants and play a beneficial role in plant growth, and development along with biocontrol activities. The present study was undertaken with the aim of developing rhizobacterial inoculants for groundnut for enhancement of growth and yield and suppression of major soil-borne fungal diseases caused by Sclerotium rolfsii (stem rot) and Aspergillus niger (collar rot). Out of a total of 154 rhizobacterial isolates obtained from groundnut rhizosphere, 78 isolates were selected on the basis of in vitro antifungal activities against three major soil-borne fungal pathogens of groundnut, i.e. Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Sclerotium rolfsii. The selected isolates were further screened for the production of 2,4-Diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG) by the gene specific PCR amplification of phlD gene. A total of 11 rhizobacterial isolates were found to have DAPG-producing genes and selected for further studies. Gene specific primers were also used for characterization of the isolates for plant growth-promoting and biocontrol traits. The qualitative and quantitative estimation of the various attributes of the isolates were also carried out. Majority of the isolates showed production of IAA, siderophores and fluorescent pigments. The DAPG-producing rhizobacterial isolates have great potential as bio-inoculants for groundnut crop for suppressing soil-borne fungal pathogens and to enhance growth and yield. © 2016, Agricultural Research Communication Centre. All rights reserved.

Chakraborty K.,Directorate of Groundnut Research ICAR | Singh A.L.,Directorate of Groundnut Research ICAR | Kalariya K.A.,Directorate of Groundnut Research ICAR | Goswami N.,Directorate of Groundnut Research ICAR | Zala P.V.,Directorate of Groundnut Research ICAR
Acta Botanica Croatica | Year: 2015

From a field experiment, the changes in oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities were studied in six Spanish peanut cultivars subjected to 25-30 days of water deficit stress at two different stages: pegging and pod development stages. Imposition of water deficit stress significantly reduced relative water content, membrane stability and total carotenoid content in all the cultivars, whereas total chlorophyll content increased at pegging stage but decreased at pod developmental stage. Chlorophyll a/b ratio increased under water deficit stress in most of the cultivars suggesting a greater damage to chlorophyll b rather than an increase in chlorophyll a content. Oxidative stress measured in terms of H2O2, superoxide radical content and lipid peroxidation increased under water deficit stress, especially in susceptible cultivars such as DRG 1, AK 159 and ICGV 86031. Relationship among different physiological parameters showed that the level of oxidative stress, in terms of production of reactive oxygen species, was negatively correlated with activities of different antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase. In conclusion, the study shows that water deficit stress at pod development stage proved to be more detrimental than at pegging stage. The higher activities of antioxidant enzymes in the tolerant cultivars like ICGS 44 and TAG 24 were responsible for protection of oxidative damage and thus provide better tolerance to water deficit stress. Copyright® 2015 by Acta Botanica Croatica, the Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb. All rights reserved.

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