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Jain N.K.,ICAR Directorate of Groundnut Research | Meena H.N.,ICAR Directorate of Groundnut Research
Indian Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2015

A field experiment was conducted during the summer seasons of 2011 and 2012 at Junagadh, Gujarat to improve productivity of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by using water soluble fertilizer through drip irrigation. Results indicated that maximum SPAD chlorophyll meter reading (SCMR) was recorded with the application of water soluble fertilizer through drip irrigation @ 150 kg/ha at 50 DAS, while dry matter accumulation/plant, plant height and number of nodules/plant (at 75 DAS) were found higher in the treatment receiving water soluble fertilizer @ 226.5 kg/ha through drip irrigation. Similarly, number and weight of mature pods/plant, 100-kernel weight and shelling out-turn were also recorded higher with water soluble fertilizer @ 226.5 kg/ha through drip irrigation. Maximum pod yield (2.67 t/ha), haulm yield (4.96 t/ha), kernel yield (1.82 t/ha), oil content (50.3%), oil yield (0.92 t/ha), protein yield (0.50 t/ha) and nutrient uptake (200.1 kg NPKB/ha) were recorded with the application of water soluble fertilizer through drip irrigation @ 226.5 kg/ha. This treatment also gave maximum net returns (50.9 × 103(formula presented)/ha) and water productivity (787 g/m3), while maximum benefit: cost ratio (2.42) was obtained under recommended dose of fertilizers (25 kg N, 22 kg P and 24.9 kg K/ha) fb check basin method of irrigation. After harvesting of groundnut, maximum actual N (36.0 kg/ha), P (8.5 kg/ha) and K (31.4 kg/ha) gains were recorded in the treatment receiving water soluble fertilizer @ 250 kg/ha through drip irrigation compared to all other treatments. Application of water soluble fertilizers through drip also saved 36–38% water over check basin method of irrigation. © 2015 Indian Society of Agronomy. All rights reserved. Source


Bosamia T.C.,ICAR Directorate of Groundnut Research | Bosamia T.C.,Junagadh Agricultural University | Mishra G.P.,ICAR Directorate of Groundnut Research | Thankappan R.,ICAR Directorate of Groundnut Research | Dobaria J.R.,ICAR Directorate of Groundnut Research
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

With the aim to increase the number of functional markers in resource poor crop like cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea), large numbers of available expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the public databases, were employed for the development of novel EST derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. From 16424 unigenes, 2784 (16.95%) SSRs containing unigenes having 3373 SSR motifs were identified. Of these, 2027 (72.81%) sequences were annotated and 4124 gene ontology terms were assigned. Among different SSR motif-classes, tri-nucleotide repeats (33.86%) were the most abundant followed by dinucleotide repeats (27.51%) while AG/CT (20.7%) and AAG/CTT (13.25%) were the most abundant repeat-motifs. A total of 2456 EST-SSR novel primer pairs were designed, of which 366 unigenes having relevance to various stresses and other functions, were PCR validated using a set of 11 diverse peanut genotypes. Of these, 340 (92.62%) primer pairs yielded clear and scorable PCR products and 39 (10.66%) primer pairs exhibited polymorphisms. Overall, the number of alleles per marker ranged from 1-12 with an average of 3.77 and the PIC ranged from 0.028 to 0.375 with an average of 0.325. The identified EST-SSRs not only enriched the existing molecular markers kitty, but would also facilitate the targeted research in marker-trait association for various stresses, inter-specific studies and genetic diversity analysis in peanut. © 2015 Bosamia et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source


Bhaduri D.,ICAR Directorate of Groundnut Research | Saha A.,ICAR Directorate of Groundnut Research | Saha A.,ICAR Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research | Desai D.,ICAR Directorate of Groundnut Research | Meena H.N.,ICAR Directorate of Groundnut Research
Chemosphere | Year: 2016

For the present study, soil samples of four artificially-induced salinity gradients (S0: control, S1: 2.0, S2: 4.0, S3: 6.0 ECiw) was incubated with fine-textured peanut shell biochar at various ratios (B0: control, B1: 2.5%, B2: 5.0%, B3: 10% w/w) for 30 days. At 1, 3, 7, 15, 30 days of incubation, samples were analyzed for soil carbon and selected enzyme activities. Results showed that biochar could increase soil organic carbon on application of highest rate of biochar addition (B3), hence potentially restored the saline soils by less C mineralization, and more sequestration of soil C. However, soil enzyme activities were biochar rate(s), day(s) of incubation and enzyme dependent. The lowest rate of biochar addition (B1) showed highest dehydrogenase (20.5 μg TPF g-1 soil h-1), acid phosphatase (29.1 μg PNP g-1 soil h-1) and alkaline phosphatase (16.1 μg PNP g-1 soil h-1) whereas the higher rate (B2) increased the urease (5.51 μg urea-N g-1 soil h-1) and fluorescein diacetate hydrolyzing activities (3.95 μg fluorescein g-1 OD soil h-1) in soil. All the positive changes persisted at higher levels of salinity (S2, S3) suggesting biochar-amended soil may be potential for better nutrient cycling. Soil enzymes were found to be correlated with soil carbon and with each other while principal component analysis (PCA) extracted the most sensitive parameters as the acid and alkaline phosphatases and urease activities in the present experimental condition. This is the first time report of examining soil microbial environment using peanut shell biochar under a degraded (saline) soil. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Saha A.,ICAR Directorate of Groundnut Research | Saha A.,ICAR Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research | Pipariya A.,ICAR Directorate of Groundnut Research | Bhaduri D.,ICAR Directorate of Groundnut Research
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2016

Field experiments in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) soil ecosystem were conducted during the summer seasons (February–June) of the year 2013 and 2014 in black clay soil treated with tebuconazole at field rate (FR), 2-times FR (2FR) and 10-times FR (10FR) as foliar spray to determine the impact of tebuconazole on soil microbial properties and enzymatic activities. Tebuconazole application at FR and 2FR resulted in a short-lived and transitory toxic effect on soil microbial properties and enzymatic activities. The duration of this disturbance was slightly longer at 10FR. Incorporation of tebuconazole in soil resulted in stimulating the soil microbial activity as evidenced by increased ammonification and nitrification rates and increased soil microbial biomass at later stage. However, it was more toxic to soil ergosterol which is the indicator of the presence of viable fungi. Soil enzymatic activities like fluorescein diacetate-hydrolyzing activity, urease, phosphatase and aryl sulfatase are either unaffected or shortly inhibited and then recovered. However, dehydrogenase and nitrate reductase activity decreased more drastically and can be used as valuable indicator to assess the impact of tebuconazole application on soil health. The results indicated that instead of single assays, a broad spectrum analysis of soil microbial and enzymatic activities gives a better insight about the impacts of pesticide on soil health. From this study, it is also concluded that the application of tebuconazole at 10FR had adverse effects on the microbial variables and the effect on long-term application should be studied further. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Meena H.N.,ICAR Directorate of Groundnut Research | Meena M.,ICAR Directorate of Groundnut Research | Yadav R.S.,ICAR Directorate of Groundnut Research
Field Crops Research | Year: 2016

Recently, the productivity of peanut in salinity prone areas has sharply declined. Due to the ever increasing oilseed demand, this needs to be addressed as a priority. Hence, we investigated whether the re-use of peanut seed harvested from saline areas could be a probable reason for this abrupt decline in peanut productivity. Two different types of peanut seed (seed harvested from crops grown under salinity and under normal soil conditions) of two cultivars (TG 37A and GG 2) were grown under 0.5, 2, 4 and 6dSm-1 levels of salinity established for one and half decades. The germination percentage, shoot and root length, number of branches, root and pod weight per plant and finally the pod and haulm yield were significantly reduced with increase in salinity levels for both cultivars and seed types. Relatively shoot length was found to be more prone to the increased salinity levels as compared to root length. This reduction was more pronounced in salinity grown seed as compared to seed grown in normal soil conditions for both the cultivar. However, GG 2 performed better over TG 37A in respect to growth and other yield attributes. Further the use of normal seed increased the pod yield of peanut up to 86% under different water salinity levels as compared to re-use of salinity grown seed (harvested from saline soil condition) This is the cumulative effect of water salinity as well as the re-use of seed harvested under saline conditions. Hence, it was proved that the use of peanut crop harvested from saline conditions should be avoided for seed purposes to ensure better peanut production especially under saline conditions. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source

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