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Pandey M.K.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Gautami B.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Jayakumar T.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Sriswathi M.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | And 7 more authors.
Plant Breeding | Year: 2012

With an objective of identification of highly informative set of SSR markers in cultivated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.), a total of 4485 markers were used for screening using a set of 20 parental genotypes of 15 mapping populations. Although 3582 (79.9%) markers provided scorable amplification, only 1351 (37.3%) markers showed polymorphism. Polymorphism information content (PIC) value ranged from 0.10 (GM742) to 0.89 (S009) with an average of 0.31. Similarly, number of alleles ranged from 2 to 14 with an average of 3.2 alleles. In general, the SSR markers based on dinucleotide repeats displayed higher PIC value and number of alleles. Based on these polymorphism features, 199 markers with >0.50 PIC values have been identified. Polymorphism features of these markers along with the primer sequences, for the first time, for a total of 946 SSR markers have been provided. It is anticipated that the identified set of highly informative markers, instead of starting from the random set of SSR markers, should be very useful to initiate molecular genetics and breeding studies in cultivated groundnut. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Harish G.,Directorate of Groundnut Research DGR | Harish G.,Crop Protection Unit | Nataraja M.V.,Directorate of Groundnut Research DGR | Ajay B.C.,Directorate of Groundnut Research DGR | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Groundnut during storage is attacked by number of stored grain pests and management of these insect pests particularly bruchid beetle, Caryedon serratus (Oliver) is of prime importance as they directly damage the pod and kernels. In this regard different storage bags that could be used and duration up to which we can store groundnut has been studied. Super grain bag recorded minimum number of eggs laid and less damage and minimum weight loss in pods and kernels in comparison to other storage bags. Analysis of variance for multiple regression models were found to be significant in all bags for variables viz, number of eggs laid, damage in pods and kernels, weight loss in pods and kernels throughout the season. Multiple comparison results showed that there was a high probability of eggs laid and pod damage in lino bag, fertilizer bag and gunny bag, whereas super grain bag was found to be more effective in managing the C. serratus owing to very low air circulation. © 2013, Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).


Holajjer P.,Directorate of Groundnut Research DGR | Kamra A.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Gaur H.S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Manjunath M.,Indian Institute of Vegetable Research
Crop Protection | Year: 2013

Cyanobacteria or blue green algae are prokaryotic oxygenic phototrophs that require little moisture and diffused light for growth and are ubiquitous in nature. Both the heterocystous and non-heterocystous forms of cyanobacteria are reported to produce a large number of compounds with varying bioactivities including toxins such as microcystins, nodularins and neurotoxins. Extracts and exudates of cyanobacteria have been reported to inhibit hatching and to cause immobility and mortality of juvenile plant parasitic nematodes invitro. Application of cyanobacteria in soil may reduce nematode infestation and increase plant yield. There are reports of several cyanobacterial formulations that are being developed and tested against plant pathogens but none have been commercialised. Screening of extracts or metabolites against plant parasitic nematodes is the initial step to determine the usefulness of cyanobacteria for nematode management. Therefore, a large scale screening programme is necessary for selection of strains with greater nematicidal potential. The nitrogen fixation abilities of some species of cyanobacteria also render them useful as biofertilizers. A combination of nitrogen fixation and nematode suppressive attributes can provide a dual advantage in several crops. Future research is needed in this direction to exploit these organisms for biorational management of plant parasitic nematodes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Ravi K.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Vadez V.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Isobe S.,Kazusa DNA Research Institute | Mir R.R.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | And 8 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2011

Cultivated groundnut or peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), an allotetraploid (2n = 4x = 40), is a self pollinated and widely grown crop in the semi-arid regions of the world. Improvement of drought tolerance is an important area of research for groundnut breeding programmes. Therefore, for the identification of candidate QTLs for drought tolerance, a comprehensive and refined genetic map containing 191 SSR loci based on a single mapping population (TAG 24 × ICGV 86031), segregating for drought and surrogate traits was developed. Genotyping data and phenotyping data collected for more than ten drought related traits in 2-3 seasons were analyzed in detail for identification of main effect QTLs (M-QTLs) and epistatic QTLs (E-QTLs) using QTL Cartographer, QTLNetwork and Genotype Matrix Mapping (GMM) programmes. A total of 105 M-QTLs with 3.48-33.36% phenotypic variation explained (PVE) were identified using QTL Cartographer, while only 65 M-QTLs with 1.3-15.01% PVE were identified using QTLNetwork. A total of 53 M-QTLs were such which were identified using both programmes. On the other hand, GMM identified 186 (8.54-44.72% PVE) and 63 (7.11-21.13% PVE), three and two loci interactions, whereas only 8 E-QTL interactions with 1.7-8.34% PVE were identified through QTLNetwork. Interestingly a number of co-localized QTLs controlling 2-9 traits were also identified. The identification of few major, many minor M-QTLs and QTL × QTL interactions during the present study confirmed the complex and quantitative nature of drought tolerance in groundnut. This study suggests deployment of modern approaches like marker-assisted recurrent selection or genomic selection instead of marker-assisted backcrossing approach for breeding for drought tolerance in groundnut. © 2010 The Author(s).


Varshney R.K.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Pandey M.K.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Janila P.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Nigam S.N.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | And 8 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2014

Key message Successful introgression of a major QTL for rust resistance, through marker-assisted backcrossing, in three popular Indian peanut cultivars generated several promising introgression lines with enhanced rust resistance and higher yield. Abstract L eaf rust, caused by Puccinia arachidis Speg, is one of the major devastating diseases in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). One QTL region on linkage group AhXV explaining upto 82.62 % phenotypic variation for rust resistance was validated and introgressed from cultivar ‘GPBD 4’ into three rust susceptible varieties (‘ICGV 91114’, ‘JL 24’ and ‘TAG 24’) through marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC). The MABC approach employed a total of four markers including one dominant (IPAHM103) and three co-dominant (GM2079, GM1536, GM2301) markers present in the QTL region. After 2–3 backcrosses and selfing, 200 introgression lines (ILs) were developed from all the three crosses. Field evaluation identified 81 ILs with improved rust resistance. Those ILs had significantly increased pod yields (56–96 %) in infested environments compared to the susceptible parents. Screening of selected 43 promising ILs with 13 markers present on linkage group AhXV showed introgression of the target QTL region from the resistant parent in 11 ILs. Multi-location field evaluation of these ILs should lead to the release of improved varieties. The linked markers may be used in improving rust resistance in peanut breeding programmes. © The Author(s) 2014.


Varshney R.K.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Pandey M.K.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Janila P.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Nigam S.N.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | And 6 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2014

Key message Successful introgression of a major QTL for rust resistance, through marker-assisted backcrossing, in three popular Indian peanut cultivars generated several promising introgression lines with enhanced rust resistance and higher yield. Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia arachidis Speg, is one of the major devastating diseases in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). One QTL region on linkage group AhXV explaining upto 82.62 % phenotypic variation for rust resistance was validated and introgressed from cultivar 'GPBD 4' into three rust susceptible varieties ('ICGV 91114', 'JL 24' and 'TAG 24') through marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC). The MABC approach employed a total of four markers including one dominant (IPAHM103) and three co-dominant (GM2079, GM1536, GM2301) markers present in the QTL region. After 2-3 backcrosses and selfing, 200 introgression lines (ILs) were developed from all the three crosses. Field evaluation identified 81 ILs with improved rust resistance. Those ILs had significantly increased pod yields (56-96 %) in infested environments compared to the susceptible parents. Screening of selected 43 promising ILs with 13 markers present on linkage group AhXV showed introgression of the target QTL region from the resistant parent in 11 ILs. Multi-location field evaluation of these ILs should lead to the release of improved varieties. The linked markers may be used in improving rust resistance in peanut breeding programmes. © 2014 The Author(s).


Sujay V.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Sujay V.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad | Gowda M.V.C.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad | Pandey M.K.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | And 10 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2012

Late leaf spot (LLS) and rust have the greatest impact on yield losses worldwide in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). With the objective of identifying tightly linked markers to these diseases, a total of 3,097 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were screened on the parents of two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations, namely TAG 24 × GPBD 4 (RIL-4) and TG 26 × GPBD 4 (RIL-5), and segregation data were obtained for 209 marker loci for each of the mapping populations. Linkage map analysis of the 209 loci resulted in the mapping of 188 and 181 loci in RIL-4 and RIL-5 respectively. Using 143 markers common to the two maps, a consensus map with 225 SSR loci and total map distance of 1,152. 9 cM was developed. Comprehensive quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis detected a total of 28 QTL for LLS and 15 QTL for rust. A major QTL for LLS, namely QTL LLS01 (GM1573/GM1009-pPGPseq8D09), with 10. 27-62. 34% phenotypic variance explained (PVE) was detected in all the six environments in the RIL-4 population. In the case of rust resistance, in addition to marker IPAHM103 identified earlier, four new markers (GM2009, GM1536, GM2301 and GM2079) showed significant association with the major QTL (82. 96% PVE). Localization of 42 QTL for LLS and rust on the consensus map identified two candidate genomic regions conferring resistance to LLS and rust. One region present on linkage group AhXV contained three QTL each for LLS (up to 67. 98% PVE) and rust (up to 82. 96% PVE). The second candidate genomic region contained the major QTL with up to 62. 34% PVE for LLS. Molecular markers associated with the major QTL for resistance to LLS and rust can be deployed in molecular breeding for developing groundnut varieties with enhanced resistance to foliar diseases. © 2011 The Author(s).


Gautami B.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Gautami B.,Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University | Pandey M.K.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Vadez V.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | And 9 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2012

Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important food and cash crop grown mainly in semi-arid tropics (SAT) regions of the world where drought is the major constraint on productivity. With the aim of understanding the genetic basis and identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for drought tolerance, two new recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping populations, namely ICGS 76 × CSMG 84-1 (RIL-2) and ICGS 44 × ICGS 76 (RIL-3), were used. After screening of 3,215 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers on the parental genotypes of these populations, two new genetic maps were developed with 119 (RIL-2) and 82 (RIL-3) SSR loci. Together with these maps and the reference map with 191 SSR loci based on TAG 24 × ICGV 86031 (RIL-1), a consensus map was constructed with 293 SSR loci distributed over 20 linkage groups, spanning 2,840. 8 cM. As all these three populations segregate for drought-tolerance-related traits, a comprehensive QTL analysis identified 153 main effect QTL (M-QTL) and 25 epistatic QTL (E-QTL) for drought-tolerance-related traits. Localization of these QTL on the consensus map provided 16 genomic regions that contained 125 QTL. A few key genomic regions were selected on the basis of the QTL identified in each region, and their expected role in drought adaptation is also discussed. Given that no major QTL for drought adaptation were identified, novel breeding approaches such as marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS) and genomic selection (GS) approaches are likely to be the preferred approaches for introgression of a larger number of QTL in order to breed drought-tolerant groundnut genotypes. © 2011 The Author(s).

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