Directorate of Groundnut Research

Jūnāgadh, India

Directorate of Groundnut Research

Jūnāgadh, India
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Nautiyal P.C.,Directorate of Groundnut Research | Shono M.,Okinawa Sub tropical Research Station
Biologia Plantarum | Year: 2010

This communication examines the role of small heat shock proteins (sHsps) targeted to mitochondria (Mt) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) under heat stress. Genetic response of transgenic and wild type plants varied under optimum, moderately elevated and elevated temperature. In optimum temperature higher biomass was recorded in wild type than the transgenic lines, whereas in moderately elevated temperature biomass increased in Mt-sHsp line. Also, net photosynthetic rate (PN) increased in Mt-sHsp line in both the elevated temperatures, though higher in moderately elevated. Cell membrane stability (CMS) improved in all the lines after exposure to elevated temperatures, but always remained higher in transgenic lines. Transgenic lines expressed sHsps in different temperature regimes in both vegetative and reproductive parts, while wild type expressed such proteins only after 1 h of heat shock. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Jat R.A.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Jat R.A.,Directorate of Groundnut Research | Wani S.P.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Sahrawat K.L.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics
Advances in Agronomy | Year: 2012

Relatively less attention has been paid on the use of conservation agriculture (CA) in the arid and semi-arid tropics (SAT), although a lot of information is available from humid and sub-humid regions globally. The objective of this review is to focus on the use of CA - its status, problems and prospects in the semi-arid tropical regions with emphasis on Asia and Africa. The information on the use of CA in SAT regions is summarized and put in context with the information available and lessons learnt on the use of CA in relatively vast tracts of land, especially in Brazil, North America, and Australia. Clearly, there are several bottlenecks in the use of CA in the SAT regions of Asia and Africa especially under rainfed agriculture. Among the major constraints to the use of CA in these regions include insufficient amounts of residues due to water shortage and degraded nature of soil resource, competing uses of crop residues, resource poor smallholder farmers, and lack of in-depth research in the SAT regions of Africa and to a lesser extent in Asia. The exception in the implementation of CA is of course the wheat-rice system in south Asia under irrigated conditions. The use of CA in the wheat-rice system of the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) of south Asia has been relatively well researched during the last decade or so. However, in rainfed systems of the drier regions, relatively less attention has been given to develop research strategy to overcome the constraints to the adoption of CA. Examples are given from Brazil, Australia and North America as to how CA has been widely adopted in those regions as well as from Africa where CA is being promoted through active support of donor agencies. Obviously, there is need for strategic long-term research in the SAT regions for exploring the prospects in the face of major constraints faced to the adoption of CA, before CA could be taken to the farmers' door steps. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Bhauso T.D.,Directorate of Groundnut Research | Thankappan R.,Directorate of Groundnut Research | Kumar A.,Directorate of Groundnut Research | Mishra G.P.,Directorate of Groundnut Research | And 2 more authors.
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2014

Previous work on a number of transgenics having mtlD has established the role of mannitol accumulation in the alleviation of abiotic stresses like salinity and drought. In the present study we have characterized the peanut (cv. GG 20) plants transformed with mtlD (from Escherichia coli) for its tolerance to abiotic stresses. Salinity and water-deficit stress tolerance were evaluated using different physio-biochemical and growth parameters in transgenic and wild-type plants both at seedling and full-growth stage. Here we demonstrate that biosynthesis of mannitol in transgenic peanut lines due to the over-expression of mtlD gene improves its tolerance for salinity and water-deficit stress over WT. This was revealed by better growth and physio-biochemical parameters like mannitol content, proline levels, total chlorophyll content, osmotic potential, electrolytic leakage and relative water content in transgenics over WT. It is concluded that the better performance of mannitol-synthesizing transgenic plants was due to the stress-shielding role of mannitol. However we are not ruling out the possibility of induction of a series of signal- transductions in transgenic plants in response to the mtlD expression, which may activate other protective reactions against salinity and drought stresses.

Singh A.L.,Directorate of Groundnut Research | Chaudhari V.,Directorate of Groundnut Research
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2015

A field experiment with 60 groundnut cultivars, in a calcareous soil having 1.20 mg kg−1 available zinc (Zn), foliar application of 0.2% aqueous solution of zinc sulphate thrice at 40, 55 and 70 days at 500, 500 and 1000 L ha−1, respectively, increased the number of pods, pod yield, shelling and 100 seed mass and seed zinc (Zn) content, significantly. The seeds Zn content in groundnut cultivars ranged 38–70 mg kg−1 with an average of 48 mg kg−1 without Zn and 58 mg kg−1 with Zn. Foliar Zn application increased 22% Zn in seed. This increase was more than 10% in 48 out of 60 cultivars. The cultivars GG 7, GG 20, Tirupati 4, DH 8, JSP 19, TKG 19 A, CSMG 884 and S 206 showed > 50 mg kg−1 Zn, > 10% increase in seed Zn with Zn application and > 250 g m−2 pod yield. © 2015, Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Bera S.K.,Directorate of Groundnut Research | Ajay B.C.,Directorate of Groundnut Research | Singh A.L.,Directorate of Groundnut Research
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2013

Peanut is an important edible oilseed crop in the world. Salinity is one of the important abiotic stresses affecting peanut productivity by hampering germination, arresting vegetative and reproductive growth and affecting seed quality. Ten lines developed through introgressive hybridization along with 23 popular varieties were screened in vitro for their germinability under high salt concentration (250mM NaCl) in test tube. Interspecific derivatives NRCGCS-296 (J11 x A. duranensis) and NRCGCS-241 (GG 2 x A.cardenasii) had high germination stress tolerance index (GSTI) and promptness index (PI) and were regarded as tolerant whereas susceptible genotype (TMV-2) had low GSTI and PI. Tolerant, moderately tolerant and susceptible genotypes where evaluated further for biomass accumulation and salt uptake. Root length, shoot length, chlorophyll a, b and carotenoide contents reduced under high salt conditions. Transportation of the absorbed Na+ ions from roots to leaves was more in susceptible plant (TMV-2) compared to tolerant genotypes (NRCGCS-241 and NRCCS-296). These four genotypes were further screened with gene specific primers (Na+/H+ antipoter, NAC, WRKY and PR10) synthesized from the sequences available in the NCBI database. WRKY and Na+/H+ antiporter gene specific primers discriminated tolerant and susceptible genotypes and amplified about 350bp and 1000bp amplicons, respectively in NRCGCS-241 which were absent in rest of the three genotypes. Besides, Na+/H+ primer amplified a separate amplicon of about 900bp in all genotypes except NRCGCS-296. Rest two primers were monomorphic among these genotypes and did not differentiate these four genotypes. WRKY and Na+/H+ genes might be responsible for imparting tolerance to salinity stress in peanut.

Photorespiration is generally considered to be an essentially dissipative process, although it performs some protective and essential functions. A theoretical appraisal indicates that the loss of freshly assimilated CO2 due to photorespiration in well-watered plants may not be as high as generally believed. Even under moderately adverse conditions, these losses may not exceed 10%. The photorespiratory metabolism of the source leaves of well-watered and well-nourished crop plants ought to be different from that of other leaves because the fluxes of the export of both carbohydrates and organic N-transport compounds in source leaves is quite high. With a heuristic approach that involved the dovetailing of certain metabolic steps with the photorespiratory cycle (PR-cycle), a novel network is proposed to operate in the source-leaves of well-watered and well-nourished plants. This network allows for the diversion of metabolites from their cyclic-routes in sizeable quantities. With the removal of considerable quantities of glycine and serine from the cyclic route, the number of RuBP oxygenation events would be several times those of the formation of hydroxypyruvate. Thus, to an extreme extent, photorespiratory metabolism would become open-ended and involve much less futile recycling of glycine and serine. Conversion of glyoxylate to glycine has been proposed to be a crucial step in the determination of the relative rates of the futile (cyclic) and anabolic (open-ended) routes. Thus, in the source leaves of well-watered and well-nourished plants, the importance of the cyclic route is limited to the salvaging of photorespiratory intermediates for the regeneration of RuBP. The proposed network is resilient enough to coordinate the rates of the assimilation of carbon and nitrogen in accordance with the moisture and N-fertility statuses of the soil. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH.

Nautiyal P.C.,Directorate of Groundnut Research | Ravindra V.,Directorate of Groundnut Research | Rathnakumar A.L.,Directorate of Groundnut Research | Ajay B.C.,Directorate of Groundnut Research | Zala P.V.,Directorate of Groundnut Research
Field Crops Research | Year: 2012

Thirty Spanish groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars were grown for three cropping seasons, i.e., for two consecutive rainy and summer, and one post-rainy, and evaluated for physiological, morphological and anatomical traits and yield components. Photosynthetic rate (PN) was measured at full pod (R4) during rainy and post-rainy while at different reproductive growth stages during summer seasons. Response of cultivars to physiological traits differed significantly and cultivars belonging to high PN expressed higher gs and lower difference between leaf and air temperatures (ΔT) indicating that groundnut productivity could be increased by increasing gs. Among the reproductive growth stages, PN was higher during full pod (R4) and beginning seed (R5) in addition ΔT was least during this period. This indicated that Spanish groundnut is more close to the determinate type of growth habit and exhibited reproductive sink driven PN. Associations between morphological and physiological traits and yield components were established and potential trade-offs between various traits were identified. For example, associations between PN and total sink size (r=0.43**), weight of mature pods (r=0.45**) and harvest index (HI) (r=0.48**) were positive while association between PN and ΔT (r=-0.60**), leaf temperature (r=-0.47**), petiole length (r=-0.50**), both leaflet length and width (r=-66**) were negative. Among the sources of variation, environment was found most detrimental to influence the traits and among the physiological traits influence of environment was more on gs than the PN and ΔT. Similarly, environment has influenced pod yield more than reproductive sink size. Among all the traits studied, PN, gs, pod yield and HI contributed maximum to the observed variation. In conclusion, knowledge on physiological understanding in relation to PN and productivity and wide genetic variability among various traits, as reported in this study, could be utilized in developing new potential germplasm and designing ideotype for making the cultivars more adaptive for different water availability areas in semi-arid tropics worldwide. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Kumar G.D.S.,Directorate of Groundnut Research | Popat M.N.,Junagadh Agricultural University
Crop Protection | Year: 2010

Aflatoxins, produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus Link ex Fries and Aspergillus parasiticus Speare, are the major toxins affecting the quality of groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) meant for human consumption. Groundnuts can be infected with aflatoxin-producing fungi pre-harvest, at harvest and post-harvest. This survey was conducted in Gujarat province in India in order to assess farmers' and other stakeholders' (extension staff and traders) perceptions and knowledge of aflatoxin contamination of groundnuts and to evaluate the agronomic and market practices used to manage it. The survey investigated the effects of the socioeconomic background of the farmers. The results showed that the socioeconomic and psychological characteristics, viz. education, caste, farm size, social participation, extension participation, market orientation, economic motivation, innovativeness and perception had positive and significant associations with farmers' knowledge. The extension staff and traders had a good understanding of the problem and of the importance of managing aflatoxin contamination but farmers did not. Farmers' who practised effective crop husbandry in order to increase production were unwittingly managing aflatoxin contamination to some extent. Their marketing practises showed that the problem of aflatoxin contamination was neglected at both the production and marketing stages. We suggest that extension agencies need to train farmers in the use of biological control agents, post-harvest management and identification of aflatoxin contamination. Partnerships need to be forged between research institutions, the departments of agriculture of various states, marketing agencies, NGOs, farmers' groups, consumer groups, agrochemical manufacturers and other stakeholders in order to develop strategies for addressing the problem of aflatoxin contamination. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Kumar G.D.S.,Directorate of Groundnut Research | Popat M.N.,Junagadh Agricultural University
International Journal of Pest Management | Year: 2010

Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a major oilseed crop of India. Groundnut has great potential for diversification, from oil extraction to food uses, due to its high nutritive value. Aflatoxin contamination is the major impediment to such diversification. Aflatoxins, produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, are the major toxins affecting the quality of groundnut meant for human consumption. The adoption of 'Aflatoxin Management Practices of Groundnut' (AMPG) is very important for reducing aflatoxin contamination. This study was undertaken with the aims of determining the extent of adoption of AMPG by farmers, to assess the constraints upon adoption of AMPG and to understand the relationship between adoption of AMPG by farmers and socio-economic and psychological factors. The results indicated that the majority of the farmers were unaware of aflatoxin contamination and hence had not adopted sowing, post-sowing and post-harvest aflatoxin management practices. The farmers with large land holdings were high adopters of AMPG compared to farmers with small land holdings. Socio-economic and psychological characteristics such as innovativeness, perception of groundnut quality, extension participation, socioeconomic status, market orientation and farm size significantly influenced the adoption of AMPG. Mass awareness campaigns need to be organized to improve the stakeholders' perception of groundnut quality and the ill-effects of consuming aflatoxin-contaminated products. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Sarkar T.,Directorate of Groundnut Research | Thankappan R.,Directorate of Groundnut Research | Kumar A.,Directorate of Groundnut Research | Mishra G.P.,Directorate of Groundnut Research | Dobaria J.R.,Directorate of Groundnut Research
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Research on genetic transformation in various crop plants using the DREB1A transcription factor has shown better abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic crops. The AtDREB1A transgenic peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. cv. GG 20), which was previously developed, was characterized in terms of its physio-biochemical, molecular and growth parameters. The tolerance of this transgenic peanut to drought and salinity stresses was evaluated at the seedling (18 days old) and maturity stages. Transgenic peanut lines showed improved tolerance to both stresses over wild-type, as observed by delayed and less severe wilting of leaves and by improved growth parameters that were correlated with physio-biochemical parameters such as proline content, total chlorophyll content, osmotic potential, electrolytic leakage and relative water content. The expression pattern of the AtDREB1A gene evaluated using qPCR at different time points demonstrated that transgene expression was induced within two hours of stress imposition. The better performance of transgenic AtDREB1A peanut at the seedling stage and the improved growth parameters were due to the expression of the transgene, which is a transcription factor, and the possible up-regulation of various stress-inducible, downstream genes in the signal transduction pathway under abiotic stress. © 2014 Sarkar et al.

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