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Kadam G.B.,Directorate of Floricultural Research | Singh K.P.,Directorate of Floricultural Research | Singh M.P.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Indian Journal of Plant Physiology

Effect of different growth temperature regimes was studied on morphological and flowering characters of two gladiolus cultivars viz. Snow Princess and American Beauty. Both the cultivars were raised in Phytotron using corm size of 3.5-4.0 cm in diameter. Temperatures treatments were maintained 20/18, 26/22 or 30/26 °C (Day/Night) with 14 h light and 60-65 % relative humidity in the growth chambers. Days required for corm sprouting decreased as the temperature levels increased. 30/26 °C temperature was found with lowest days for corm sprouting. Sprouting percentage of corms was 100 % under all the treatments in both the cultivars. There was non-significant difference in leaf number and number of florets per spike under all the temperature. Number of florets was maximum at 20/18 and 26/22 °C temperatures and was nil at 30/26 °C. The taller spike and rachis length was found under treatment T2 (26/22 °C) in cultivar American Beauty. The duration of flowering reduced with the temperature increase. Maximum duration of flowering on spike (5.67 day) was found in control treatment (20/18 °C). With few exceptions, adverse effect of increase in temperature was substantial. However, the effect of highest temperature of 30/26 °C was more adverse and significant for various vegetative and reproductive growth parameters in both the cultivars. Increase in temperature concomitantly decreased flower initiation, hastened sprouting of corms and increased plant height. © 2013 Indian Society for Plant Physiology. Source

Sharma S.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Sharma S.K.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region | Vignesh Kumar P.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Poswal R.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae

In a survey for banana streak disease during 2010-2013, occurrence of typical streak symptoms was recorded with an incidence of 20-50% in different banana orchards at different locations in India. Serological and molecular studies provided evidence for the presence of episomal Banana streak MY virus (BSMYV) and Banana streak OL virus (BSOLV) in the field samples collected from different banana growing regions. Various methods of virus detection for banana streak viruses (BSVs) were employed. Direct PCR and direct binding-PCR (DB-PCR) did not give accurate and confirmatory results for the presence of episomal virus infection. Rolling circle amplification (RCA) was found to be highly reliable but was time consuming and difficult to use for indexing of a large number of samples. The duplex-immunocapture-PCR (D-IC-PCR) employing polyclonal antiserum with an immunocapture time of 3. h was found to be a sensitive, reliable and accurate procedure for detection of episomal BSV infection. For definite detection of BSMYV, the widely occurring banana streak virus species in India D-IC-PCR using BSMYV specific primers and Musa specific internal primers was found to be most reliable procedure which can be used for routine indexing of tissue culture plantlets at different stages in the test labs as well as for germplasm exchange at quarantine stations. Based on the immuno- and immuno-nucleo detection procedures up to 46% of samples collected from different banana growing regions of India were found positive for BSV infection. Present study for the first time reported the widespread occurrence and distribution of BSV in India. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Lakhotia P.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Singh K.P.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Singh K.P.,Directorate of Floricultural Research | Singh S.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Indian Journal of Horticulture

The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of various biotic and abiotic elicitors on biosynthesis of betalain pigments in bougainvillea callus cultures. Addition of different concentrations of biotic elicitors (methyl jasmonate [MJ] and β-glucan) and abiotic elicitors (calcium chloride, FeEDTA and copper sulphate) into basal Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium influenced betacyanin and betaxanthin production. Treatment with 0.5 µM MJ was found to be most effective in inducing betalain biosynthesis in the callus. Maximum response coefficient (81.25%), earliest pigment initiation (7 days) and intensification (13.75 days) was observed with 0.5 µM MJ. Beyond this concentration there was a decrease in response coefficient and pigment content. Among the different concentrations of β-glucan, 0.5 mg/l was most effective in increasing the betacyanin and betaxanthin contents (0.35 and 0.22 mg/g FW respectively). Among the abiotic elicitors, calcium chloride at 5 g/l showed maximium response coefficient (78.75%), betacyanin (0.61 mg/g FW) and betaxanthin content (0.42 mg/g FW). FeEDTA at 100 µM and CuSO 4 at 20 µM showed good response coefficient with higher betaxanthin and betacyanin content but at higher concentrations both the response coefficient and pigment production decreased. Correlation between response coefficient, betacyanin and betaxanthin content was also calculated. © 2014, Horticulture Society of India. All rights reserved. Source

Kumar G.,Directorate of Floricultural Research | Kumar G.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Singh K.P.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Prasad K.V.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences

Identification and characterization of new varieties is essential to meet DUS testing, address IPR issues and their utilization and conservation. A total of 68 ISSR primers were screened and out of these 23 primers which gave sufficient amplification were selected for the study. These primers produced 169 bands, out of which, 149 were polymorphic with a polymorphic percentage of 88.17%. The ISSR primers namely ISSR 22, ISSR 26, ISSR 38 generated least number of bands, i.e. four of which only two were polymorphic with a polymorphism of 50% in ISSR 22. The polymorphism across all the ISSR markers ranged between 66.7% (ISSR37) to 100% (ISSR 21, ISSR 25, ISSR 26, ISSR 28, ISSR 30 and ISSR 811). The resolving power of band (Rp) produced by ISSR markers ranged from 0.66 to 7.64 for primer ISSR 38 and ISSR 31 with a mean value of 86.48 for all the primers. The correlations between Rp and number of varieties identified by each ISSR primer (0.92) were fairly high. The value of polymorphic information content (PIC) was ranged from 0.023 (ISSR 809) to 0.553 (ISSR 26) with a mean value of 0.35 over all the primers. The UPGMA dendrogram based on ISSR analysis indicated that the outlier species were 74% dissimilar with other varieties and grouped separately. The cultivars Maghi Orange and Maghi Yellow had around 90% similarity and were close to cultivar Maghi White at over 80% similarity level. ISSR markers were proved to be useful for the characterization of the genotypes for their efficient utilization, management and IPR protection. © 2015, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. All rights reserved. Source

Kadam G.B.,Directorate of Floricultural Research | Kumar G.,Directorate of Floricultural Research | Taraknathsaha,Directorate of Floricultural Research | Kumar R.,Directorate of Floricultural Research | Tiwari A.K.,Directorate of Floricultural Research
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences

An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of different herbicides on weed control and growth and development of gladiolus (Gladiolus (Tourn) L.) cv. White Prosperity grown at research farm of Directorate of Floricultural Research, New Delhi during 2011-12 and 2012-13 seasons. The major weeds infesting the experimental field were Ageratum conyzoides, Chenopodium album, Convolvulus arvensis, Cynodon dactylon, Cyprus rotundas, Digera arvensis, Digitaria adscendance, Euphobia hirta, Parthenium hysterophorus and Portulaca. The unweeded control plots recorded maximum weeds at 25 (153.2 m2) and 50 (180.7/m2) days after planting (DAP). Whereas significantly low weed count, fresh weight and dry weight were recorded in the pre-emergence application of Atrazine (@ 1.0 and 1.5 kg a.i./ha. The maximum weed control efficiency (WCE) was recorded in Atrazine (@ 1.5 kg a.i./ha (82.2)). However, pre-emergence application of Pendimethalin (1.0 and 0.75 kg a.i./ha) had superior effect on the plant height, spike length, rachis length and number of florets. The number of corms/plant, fresh weight of corms and diameter of corms were maximum with application of Atrazine (@ 1.0 and 1.5 kg a.i./ha) however, number of cormels were found maximum (28.6) in Pendimethalin @ 1.0 kg a.i./ha and lowest (2.4) in Atrazine @ 1.0 kg a.i./ha. Source

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