Directorate of Conservation of Ancient and Modern Monuments

Athens, Greece

Directorate of Conservation of Ancient and Modern Monuments

Athens, Greece
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Papanastasiou M.,Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas | Allen N.S.,Manchester Metropolitan University | McMahon A.,University of Manchester | Naegel L.C.A.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | And 2 more authors.
Dyes and Pigments | Year: 2012

Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization (APPI) in Mass Spectrometry (MS) has been utilized for a number of indigo-related compounds and was found to exhibit an excellent response. All structures were ionized in negative ion mode yielding almost exclusively deprotonated molecules. Their product ion mass spectra were also recorded and showed characteristic losses mainly of small neutrals such as CO, HBr and CONH2. APPI-MS was applied further to the analysis of indigo dyestuffs of historical importance. HPLC with single ion monitoring (SIM) was employed for the separation and detection of the compounds. A simple HPLC gradient that separated the components in less than 10 min was developed. MS/MS spectra of the colouring components were also recorded and compared to that of the reference substances. The composition of Tyrian purple originating from Murex trunculus (Hexaplex trunculus), was by far the most complex, whereas some of the structures were also detected in Purpura haemastoma (Stramonita haemastoma) and Plicopurpura pansa (Plicopurpura patula subs. pansa). Further, a number of synthetic indigo dyes, produced at different times of the 19thcentury by different manufacturers, were analyzed; similar spectra were obtained suggesting that these were highly pure. Overall, the developed analytical procedure was very efficient offering high sensitivity and selectivity. APPI was proved suitable for ionizing the species under investigation producing clear mass spectra with characteristic fragment ions and may be used successfully in the future for the characterization of similar structures in historical art objects. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Margariti C.,Directorate of Conservation of Ancient and Modern Monuments | Loukopoulou P.,Directorate of Conservation of Ancient and Modern Monuments
Journal of the Institute of Conservation | Year: 2016

This paper discusses the selection of packaging and storage means that facilitate the preservation, protection and managerial needs for a group of excavated textiles where their physical and chemical properties have been unrecognisably altered as a result of the burial process (in this case mineralisation). The newly acquired properties include a significant loss in weight (possibly due to mineralisation causing dehydration), extreme hydrophobia, brittleness and zero mechanical strength and elasticity. Developing an appropriate packaging and storage method depends on the methodology employed, the system selected and the materials used. The box-in-box method was selected for better controlling environmental parameters. The textiles were systematically organised in a way that they are stable and readily accessible with minimum handling. The materials used included open and close-cell polyethylene foam, copolymer polyethylene and polypropylene board, non-woven polyethylene fabric and the antistatic type of polyester film. All materials and methods applied exhibit great versatility and are potentially useful for conservators in similar situations. © 2016 Icon, The Institute of Conservation.

Margariti C.,Directorate of Conservation of Ancient and Modern Monuments | Protopapas S.,Directorate of Conservation of Ancient and Modern Monuments | Allen N.,Manchester Metropolitan University | Vishnyakov V.,Manchester Metropolitan University
Dyes and Pigments | Year: 2013

The inherent sensitivity of textile fibres to the aggressive process of burial accounts for the rarity and poor condition of excavated textile finds retrieved. However, the information contained within these finds is important and yielding it contributes to the longevity of the finds. Therefore, the application of non-destructive methods of investigation for the extraction of the data present is imperative. This paper presents the results of dye analysis performed on the excavated textile find HTR-73 from the Kerameikos cemetery in Athens. The Kerameikos textile find is from the 5th century BC, and has been preserved in association with copper. The techniques applied were Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) analysis, Cathodoluminescence and micro Raman. For the first time Cathodoluminescence from an indigoid compound is reported. Comparison of the analysis results on samples from the find with the contemporary reference samples lead to the identification of purple dye as a dibromoindigo compound with the origin from molluscs of Murex trunculus species. The application of non-destructive analytical methods of investigation was successful in analysing dyes on excavated textiles. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kousoulou T.,Directorate of Conservation of Ancient and Modern Monuments
Journal of the Institute of Conservation | Year: 2013

This article discusses the questions, dilemmas and decisions that arose during conservation of a sixteenth-century sakkos, the socalled 'Sakkos of Ioannis Tzimiskes', a liturgical vestment from Iviron Monastery on Mount Athos. Research through conservation revealed important information on the object's structure, morphology and stratigraphy and several proposals for the previous form and use of the textile are presented. The vestment was discovered to be made from 43 textile pieces, originating from another textile object or objects which were joined together to form the appropriate shape of the cross, in order create the sakkos. The role of the conservator in the revelation of the story of an object is discussed, as well as the preparation for display and conservation processes. © 2013 Icon, The Institute of Conservation.

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