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Sreekanth P.D.,Directorate of Cashew Research | Sreedevi P.D.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Ahmed S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Geethanjali N.,Sri Krishnadevaraya University
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2011

Prediction of water level is an important task for groundwater planning and management when the water balance consistently tends toward negative values. In Maheshwaram watershed situated in the Ranga Reddy District of Andhra Pradesh, groundwater is overexploited, and groundwater resources management requires complete understanding of the dynamic nature of groundwater flow. Yet, the dynamic nature of groundwater flow is continually changing in response to human and climatic stresses, and the groundwater system is too intricate, involving many nonlinear and uncertain factors. Artificial neural network (ANN) models are introduced into groundwater science as a powerful, flexible, statistical modeling technique to address complex pattern recognition problems. This study presents the comparison of two methods, i. e., feed-forward neural network (FFNN) trained with Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm compared with a fuzzy logic adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model for better accuracy of the estimation of the groundwater levels of the Maheshwaram watershed. The statistical indices used in the analysis were the root mean square error (RMSE), regression coefficient (R 2) and error variation (EV). The results show that FFNN-LM and ANFIS models provide better accuracy (RMSE = 4.45 and 4.94, respectively, R 2 is 93% for both models) for estimating groundwater levels well in advance for the above location. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Balasubramanian D.,Directorate of Cashew Research
AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America | Year: 2014

Using dimensional analysis, various factors influencing the grading efficiency of concentric type rotary sieve grader which was developed for size based grading of in-shell cashewnuts were optimized. The grading efficiency was found to increase as the size of the screen perforations became larger. Optimum length of sieve cylinder observed was 1.2 m for a feed rate of 292 kg h -1, suggesting further increase in screen length would yield negligible increase in the grading efficiency. Residence time of nuts inside sieve cylinder decreased as the slope increased from 9 to 18° and reduced rotational speed (10 rpm) of the sieve cylinder ensured ample opportunity for the nuts to pass through the sieve perforation due to lesser relative motion between the nuts and cylinder. A prediction equation for grading efficiency of rotary sieve grader relating various dimensionless products was developed. About 71.67% of the predicted values deviated less than ± 10% from the observed response.

Srivastava S.,Indian Institute of Science | Rupa T.R.,Directorate of Cashew Research | Swarup A.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2013

Different fractions of potassium (K) and the kinetics of K release as influenced by 21 cycles of rice-rice cropping with different rates of fertilizers and manuring were investigated on an Aeric Haplaquept (kaolinitic Inceptisol) soil profile from Bhubaneswar, India. The neutral 1 N ammonium acetate-extractable K in the surface soil layer (0-15 cm) increased from its initial value of 11.2 mg K kg-1 to 14.8, 14.2, and 17.5 mg K kg-1 soil in different treatments. However, the nonexchangeable K content in the surface soil layer dropped considerably to a level of 4.8-20.0 mg K kg-1 soil. Cumulative nonexchangeable K release after 121 h of extraction with 0.01 M calcium chloride (CaCl2) was <14 mg K kg-1. The first-order kinetic model best described the nonexchangeable K release. The decrease in pH and increase in iron (Fe) content indicated the possibilities of K supply to plants through the dissolution of soil minerals. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Vanitha K.,Directorate of Cashew Research | Bhat P.S.,Directorate of Cashew Research | Raviprasad T.N.,Directorate of Cashew Research | Srikumar K.K.,UPASI Tea Research Institute
International Journal of Pest Management | Year: 2016

The biology and behaviour of a common predator in cashew plantations, Ephestiasula pictipes (Wood-Mason), were studied under captivity for three seasons using greater wax moth larvae as prey. During Feb–May, incubation and nymphal developmental period were shorter when compared with Jun–Sep and Oct–Jan. The female mantids laid ootheca once in every 3–4 days, for a period of 70–77 days. Adult longevity and oviposition period were significantly higher during Feb–May, while no significant difference was observed in sex ratio, oviposition interval and pre oviposition period during different seasons. Sexual behaviour consisted of preliminary courtship and copulation, involving 14 activities in sequence. Duration of mounting, copulation and riding around on the female by the male widely varied from 2 min to 28 h; 5.15 to 6.10 h; and 2 to 74 h, respectively. High fertility, high fecundity, shorter life cycle, multivoltinism and feasibility of laboratory rearing throughout the year are the advantageous features of E. pictipes that permits for its mass rearing and emergence as a viable biocontrol agent in future. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Srinivasan R.,UAS | Natarajan A.,National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning | Kalaivanan D.,Directorate of Cashew Research
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

Six typical pedons representing major cashew growing soils of Dakshina Kannada district of Southern Karnataka developed from granite-gneiss and alluvium parent materials were studied for their morphological, physical and chemical properties. The soils were strongly to moderately acidic in reaction, non-saline, deep to very deep in depth and have iso-hyperthermic temperature and ustic soil moisture regimes. The soils were sandy clay loam to clay in texture, sub-angular blocky in structure, dark brown to red in colour, medium to high in organic carbon content and low cation exchange capacity and base saturation. The soils also had high amounts of coarse fragments and clay fractions. Among the exchangeable cations, calcium was found to be high in most soils, followed by magnesium, sodium and potassium. Among the DTPA extractable micronutrients, iron and manganese were sufficient in most soils, and available copper and zinc were deficient. The dry consistency varied from slightly hard to hard, moist consistency from loose to very friable/firm and wet consistency from slightly sticky/sticky to plastic. The exchangeable acidity was very high in all the pedons. The soil orders identified in the study areas were Ultisols and Inceptisols. Based on the characteristics, these cashew soils were classified as Ustic Haplohumults, Oxic Dystrustepts, Rhodic Kanhaplustults, Ustic Palehumults and Typic Paleustults.

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