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Sreekanth P.D.,Directorate of Cashew Research | Sreedevi P.D.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Ahmed S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Geethanjali N.,Sri Krishnadevaraya University
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2011

Prediction of water level is an important task for groundwater planning and management when the water balance consistently tends toward negative values. In Maheshwaram watershed situated in the Ranga Reddy District of Andhra Pradesh, groundwater is overexploited, and groundwater resources management requires complete understanding of the dynamic nature of groundwater flow. Yet, the dynamic nature of groundwater flow is continually changing in response to human and climatic stresses, and the groundwater system is too intricate, involving many nonlinear and uncertain factors. Artificial neural network (ANN) models are introduced into groundwater science as a powerful, flexible, statistical modeling technique to address complex pattern recognition problems. This study presents the comparison of two methods, i. e., feed-forward neural network (FFNN) trained with Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm compared with a fuzzy logic adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model for better accuracy of the estimation of the groundwater levels of the Maheshwaram watershed. The statistical indices used in the analysis were the root mean square error (RMSE), regression coefficient (R 2) and error variation (EV). The results show that FFNN-LM and ANFIS models provide better accuracy (RMSE = 4.45 and 4.94, respectively, R 2 is 93% for both models) for estimating groundwater levels well in advance for the above location. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Srinivasan R.,UAS | Natarajan A.,National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning | Kalaivanan D.,Directorate of Cashew Research
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

Six typical pedons representing major cashew growing soils of Dakshina Kannada district of Southern Karnataka developed from granite-gneiss and alluvium parent materials were studied for their morphological, physical and chemical properties. The soils were strongly to moderately acidic in reaction, non-saline, deep to very deep in depth and have iso-hyperthermic temperature and ustic soil moisture regimes. The soils were sandy clay loam to clay in texture, sub-angular blocky in structure, dark brown to red in colour, medium to high in organic carbon content and low cation exchange capacity and base saturation. The soils also had high amounts of coarse fragments and clay fractions. Among the exchangeable cations, calcium was found to be high in most soils, followed by magnesium, sodium and potassium. Among the DTPA extractable micronutrients, iron and manganese were sufficient in most soils, and available copper and zinc were deficient. The dry consistency varied from slightly hard to hard, moist consistency from loose to very friable/firm and wet consistency from slightly sticky/sticky to plastic. The exchangeable acidity was very high in all the pedons. The soil orders identified in the study areas were Ultisols and Inceptisols. Based on the characteristics, these cashew soils were classified as Ustic Haplohumults, Oxic Dystrustepts, Rhodic Kanhaplustults, Ustic Palehumults and Typic Paleustults.


Balasubramanian D.,Directorate of Cashew Research
AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America | Year: 2014

Using dimensional analysis, various factors influencing the grading efficiency of concentric type rotary sieve grader which was developed for size based grading of in-shell cashewnuts were optimized. The grading efficiency was found to increase as the size of the screen perforations became larger. Optimum length of sieve cylinder observed was 1.2 m for a feed rate of 292 kg h -1, suggesting further increase in screen length would yield negligible increase in the grading efficiency. Residence time of nuts inside sieve cylinder decreased as the slope increased from 9 to 18° and reduced rotational speed (10 rpm) of the sieve cylinder ensured ample opportunity for the nuts to pass through the sieve perforation due to lesser relative motion between the nuts and cylinder. A prediction equation for grading efficiency of rotary sieve grader relating various dimensionless products was developed. About 71.67% of the predicted values deviated less than ± 10% from the observed response.


Meena R.K.,Directorate of Cashew Research | Adiga J.D.,Directorate of Cashew Research | Nayak M.G.,Directorate of Cashew Research | Saroj P.L.,Directorate of Cashew Research | Kalaivanan D.,Directorate of Cashew Research
Vegetos | Year: 2014

An experiment was conducted on cashew cultivar, Ullal-3 to study the influence of Paclobutrazol (PBZ) on its vigour and yield. The paclobutrazol was applied on 1 year old plant in 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 gm per plant as soil drench annually, biennially and once in three years before vegetative flushing. The results revealed that the plant height of PBZ treated plant ranged from 229.2 to 261.1 cm in different doses while in untreated plants, it varied from 262 to 275.7 cm. The canopy spread in E-W direction among PBZ treated plants ranged from 223.7 to 252.5 cm while the untreated plants recorded 269.4 to 274.5 cm in same direction. The canopy spread in N-S direction among PBZ treated plants ranged from 234.5 to 268.2 cm, while the untreated plants varied from 273.6 to 277.7 cm in the same direction. The girth of collar region among PBZ treated plants ranged from 28.1 to 30.0 cm, while the untreated plants recorded an average girth of 29.8 to 30.2cm. The number of new flushes among PBZ treated plants ranged between 196 and 223, over the, untreated plants (176 to 196).The internodal length in PBZ treated plants ranged from 0.6 to 3.1 cm, while the untreated plants recorded 3.4 to 3.5 cm indicating the role of PBZ in reducing the plant vigour. The PBZ treated plants recorded nut weight of 6.63 to 7.56 g and nut yield of 756 to 1127 g/plant, while untreated plants recorded nut weight of 7.02 to 7.36 g and a nut yield of 668 to 728 g per plant. © 2014, Society for Plant Research. All Rights Reserved.


Srikumar K.K.,Directorate of Cashew Research | Shivarama Bhat P.,Directorate of Cashew Research
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2013

Helopeltis theivora Waterhouse, pest of tea, is emerging as a commonly occurring major pest of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) in recent times. The field observation revealed Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King & H. Rob. weed support as an alternate host of this pest during off season of cashew. Biology of H. theivora on this weed was studied for the first time. The incubation period of eggs was 10.5 ± 1.2 d. The 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th nymphal instar developmental times were 36.11 ± 9.52, 43.29 ± 7.35, 27.15 ± 8.41, 41.31 ± 10.13, and 73.91 ± 5.67 h, respectively. Survival percentage of eggs was lower (60.53%) than nymphal instars. Adult females and males lived for 22.6 ± 3.29 and 11.8 ± 1.64 d, respectively. Females showed dynamic patterns of fecundity with the number of eggs laid per female ranging 19 to 34. Longevity and fecundity of H. theivora on this weed were signifcantly lesser when compared on cashew. Egg parasitoids viz., Telenomus sp., Chaetostricha sp. and Erythmelus helopeltidis Gahan were recorded from H. theivora eggs on C. odorata for the frst time. For better management decisions, it is important to know about this mirid biology, particularly their life cycle on their alternate hosts so that the right assessment can be made before taking up spray.


Srivastava S.,Indian Institute of Science | Rupa T.R.,Directorate of Cashew Research | Swarup A.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2013

Different fractions of potassium (K) and the kinetics of K release as influenced by 21 cycles of rice-rice cropping with different rates of fertilizers and manuring were investigated on an Aeric Haplaquept (kaolinitic Inceptisol) soil profile from Bhubaneswar, India. The neutral 1 N ammonium acetate-extractable K in the surface soil layer (0-15 cm) increased from its initial value of 11.2 mg K kg-1 to 14.8, 14.2, and 17.5 mg K kg-1 soil in different treatments. However, the nonexchangeable K content in the surface soil layer dropped considerably to a level of 4.8-20.0 mg K kg-1 soil. Cumulative nonexchangeable K release after 121 h of extraction with 0.01 M calcium chloride (CaCl2) was <14 mg K kg-1. The first-order kinetic model best described the nonexchangeable K release. The decrease in pH and increase in iron (Fe) content indicated the possibilities of K supply to plants through the dissolution of soil minerals. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Srikumar K.K.,Directorate of Cashew Research | Shivarama Bhat P.,Directorate of Cashew Research
Journal of Entomological Research | Year: 2013

Studies on biology of the H. antonii revealed that egg incubation period and nymphal development period ranged from 5-8 and 10-12 days, respectively. The duration of first, second, third, fourth and fifth nymphal instars were 2-3, 1-2, 1-3, 2-3 and 3-4 days, respectively. The male lived for 13-19 days, while female lived for 18-19 days, respectively. Fecundity varied from 41-53 eggs per female. Pre-oviposition, oviposition and postoviposition period varied from 4-6, 13-16 and 3-7days, respectively. The percent survival rate was higher for first and second nymphal instars and abridged during third, fourth and fifth nymphal instar stages. The pest preferred tender fruits than flushing shoots. Fully ripen fruits were not favoured.


Sajeev M.V.,Directorate of Cashew Research | Saroj P.L.,Directorate of Cashew Research
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2015

The study measured social and economic benefits accrued from cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) cultivation in relation with constraints faced by cashew farmers in the Dakshina Kannada district of Karnataka. An 'ex-post-facto cause to effect' design was used and findings indicated that most cashew farmers derived moderate socio-economic benefits particularly with high social benefits in comparison to low economic benefits. High levels of social participation, extension participation, mass media exposure and opinion leadership were measured among majority of the farmers practicing cashew cultivation. Impact on cropping pattern, labour engagement and farm expenditure were found to be low while increase in family incomes and expenditure were reported. The regression analysis revealed that four personal variables, viz. the age of cashew farmer, years of experience in farming, cosmopoliteness and distance of cashew plot from home and one economic variable, i.e. importance given to cashew cultivation as exerting a significant positive contribution towards explaining the variability in socio-economic impact. The variables used in the study could together explain up to 67% variability in socio-economic impact. The stepwise regression model developed to predict socio-economic impact explained up to 68% of the variation in socioeconomic impact using the predictors; importance given to cashew (X1), years of experience in farming (X2), cosmopoliteness (X3), distance of cashew plot from home (X4), extension participation (X5), land used for other crops (X6) and net income from cashew farming (X7). The study revealed major constraints faced by farmers like poor price quoted by traders and the price fluctuations for raw cashew nut, scarcity of of hired labourers, incidence of tea mosquito bug owing to crop loss and death of yielding trees due to cashew stem and root borer attack. © 2015, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. All rights reserved.


Rejani R.,Directorate of Cashew Research | Yadukumar N.,Directorate of Cashew Research
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.), the highest foreign exchange earning perennial horticultural crop in India is generally grown as a rainfed crop along steep slopes of hills or on neglected land unsuitable for any other crop. In India, cashew experiences severe moisture stress from January to May, adversely affects its flowering and fruit set. In order to harvest the rainwater and to make it available to the cashew plant during critical period, an in situ soil and water conservation experiment was conducted at Directorate of Cashew Research, Puttur, Karnataka, India during 2003-2010. This experiment was laid along contour with five treatments namely, modified crescent bunds, coconut husk burial, reverse terraces, catch pits and control plot without any soil and water conservation. Among the treatments, modified crescent bund and coconut husk burial were superior. These two treatments reduced the annual runoff (22.3 and 20.4% of the annual rainfall compared to 36.9% of the annual rainfall in control), soil loss (47 and 49% of control) and nutrient loss. Also it increased the mean soil moisture content, growth of plants, yield of cashew (6.45 and 6.60. t/ha respectively compared to 4.88. t/ha in control for the first 5 harvests) and net profit from cashew garden (40% more than control). In addition to this, the groundwater level in nearby wells and ponds increased. Hence, the barren land even in steep slopes with proper soil and water conservation measures can be effectively utilized for cashew cultivation. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Vanitha K.,Directorate of Cashew Research | Bhat P.S.,Directorate of Cashew Research | Raviprasad T.N.,Directorate of Cashew Research | Srikumar K.K.,UPASI Tea Research Institute
International Journal of Pest Management | Year: 2016

The biology and behaviour of a common predator in cashew plantations, Ephestiasula pictipes (Wood-Mason), were studied under captivity for three seasons using greater wax moth larvae as prey. During Feb–May, incubation and nymphal developmental period were shorter when compared with Jun–Sep and Oct–Jan. The female mantids laid ootheca once in every 3–4 days, for a period of 70–77 days. Adult longevity and oviposition period were significantly higher during Feb–May, while no significant difference was observed in sex ratio, oviposition interval and pre oviposition period during different seasons. Sexual behaviour consisted of preliminary courtship and copulation, involving 14 activities in sequence. Duration of mounting, copulation and riding around on the female by the male widely varied from 2 min to 28 h; 5.15 to 6.10 h; and 2 to 74 h, respectively. High fertility, high fecundity, shorter life cycle, multivoltinism and feasibility of laboratory rearing throughout the year are the advantageous features of E. pictipes that permits for its mass rearing and emergence as a viable biocontrol agent in future. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

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