Directorate of Basic Combat Training

Fort Worth, United States

Directorate of Basic Combat Training

Fort Worth, United States

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Lutz L.J.,U.S. Army | Karl J.P.,U.S. Army | Rood J.C.,Louisiana State University | Cable S.J.,Directorate of Basic Combat Training | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition | Year: 2012

Background: Vitamin D is an essential nutrient for maintaining bone health, to include protecting against stress fracture during periods of rapid bone turnover. The objective of this longitudinal, observational study was to assess vitamin D status, biomarkers of bone turnover, and vitamin D and calcium intake in female Soldiers (n = 91) during US Army basic combat training (BCT).Methods: Anthropometric, biological and dietary intake data were collected at wk 0, 3, 6, and 9 of the 10 wk BCT course. Mixed models repeated measures ANOVAs were used to assess main effects of time, race, and time-by-race interactions.Results: White volunteers experienced a decrease in serum 25(OH)D levels, whereas non-white volunteers experienced an increase during BCT. However, serum 25(OH)D levels were lower in non-whites than whites at all timepoints (P-interaction < 0.05). Group mean PTH levels increased (P < 0.05) during the first 3 wk of training, remained elevated for the duration of BCT, and were higher in non-whites compared to whites (P-race < 0.05). Biomarkers of both bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase and procollagen I N-terminal peptide) and resorption (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and C-terminal telopeptide) increased (P < 0.05) during BCT, indicating increased bone turnover. Estimated daily intakes of vitamin D and calcium were below recommended levels (15 μg and 1000 mg/day, respectively), both before (group mean ± SEM; 3.9 μg/d ± 0.4 and 887 mg/d ± 67) and during BCT (4.1 μg/d ± 0.3 and 882 mg/d ± 51).Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that female Soldiers experience dynamic changes in vitamin D status coupled with increased bone turnover and potentially inadequate vitamin D and calcium intake during military training. © 2012 Lutz et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Pasiakos S.M.,U.S. Army | Karl J.P.,U.S. Army | Lutz L.J.,U.S. Army | Murphy N.E.,U.S. Army | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Cardiometabolic disease risk in US military recruits and the effects of military training have not been determined. This study examined lifestyle factors and biomarkers associated with cardiometabolic risk in US Army recruits (209; 118 male, 91 female, 23±5 yr) before, during, and after basic combat training (BCT). Methodology/Principal Findings: Anthropometrics; fasting total (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol; triglycerides (TG); glucose; and insulin were measured at baseline and every 3 wks during the 10 wk BCT course. At baseline, 14% of recruits were obese (BMI>30 kg/m 2), 27% were cigarette smokers, 37% were sedentary, and 34% reported a family history of cardiometabolic disease. TC was above recommended levels in 8%, LDL in 39%, TG in 5%, and glucose in 8% of recruits, and HDL was below recommended levels in 33% of recruits at baseline. By week 9, TC decreased 8%, LDL 10%, TG 13%, glucose 6% and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) 40% in men (P<0.05). In women, TC, LDL, glucose and HOMA-IR were decreased from baseline at weeks 3 and 6 (P<0.05), but were not different from baseline levels at week 9. During BCT, body weight declined in men but not women, while body fat percentage declined in both men and women (P<0.05). Conclusions/Significance: At the start of military service, the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk in US military recruits is comparable to that reported in similar, college-aged populations. Military training appears to be an effective strategy that may mitigate risk in young people through improvements in lipid profiles and glycemic control.

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