Chhay N.,General Directorate of Agriculture |
Chhay N.,Royal University of Agriculture |
Seng S.,Center for Development Oriented Research in Agriculture and Livelihood Systems |
Tanaka T.,Nagoya University |
And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability | Year: 2016
Innovation in rice (Oryza sativa) productivity improvement is a major goal for rice research. However, many studies have tended to analyse the various factors that affect productivity separately, while farmers invest their scare resources in farm inputs that impact on multiple factors in the real farm. This study assessed the effectiveness of integrated pest management practised during farmer field school (FFS) training in Cambodia on the production efficiencies, yields and profitability of rice farming. In total, 270 FFSs on rice cultivated in the early wet, wet and dry seasons were randomly selected from three provinces in 3 years to analyse the production practices and productivity using six cost-related factors: seed, planting methods, field management, fertilizer use, pesticide application and harvesting. It was found that yields and profits were significantly higher with the technically recommended practices (TRs) than with traditional farmer practices (FPs). However, the reverse was true for production costs due to the overuse of seed and pesticides in FP, neither of which are correlated with yield increase for both FP and TR. Thus, the FFS approach is a knowledge-intensive field management tool that enables the rational use of farm inputs and that is expected to be highly effective for sustainable rice production improvement. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group
Ayoub Z.N.,Duhok University |
Ahmed D.S.,Duhok University |
Abdulla M.,General Directorate of Agriculture |
Mosa M.H.,Duhok University
Acarina | Year: 2015
Varroa mite infestation was first detected in Iraq in the mid 1980s (Food and Agriculture Organization). High level of the infestation was found in all apiaries of Dohuk region and may act as a risk factor to the bee health. The mite V. destructor feeds on the haemolymph of the developing and adult bees. The structures that may be directly affected by Varroa mite infestation are the bee glands. Therefore this study aimed to investigate the effect of the parasitic mite V.destructor on the mandibular and hypopharyngeal glands of A. mellifera in the late summer 2013. Our results show significant differences in the size of hypopharyngeal gland acini in newly emerged workers infested with 1–3 mites compared to non-infested newly emerged workers, while only newly emerged workers infested with 3 mites showed significant differences in the size of mandibular glands as compared to non-infested newly emerged workers. Management strategies of the mid and late summer treatment are necessary to keep the mite population at low levels before and during the period when the winter bees emerge. © Acarina 2015.