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Hassa, Saudi Arabia

El-Shafie H.A.F.,King Faisal University | Faleiro J.R.,Mariella | Al-Abbad A.H.,Directorate of Agriculture | Stoltman L.,ISCA Technologies, Inc. | Mafra-Neto A.,ISCA Technologies, Inc.
Florida Entomologist

The red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a lethal pest of date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L, and several other palm species worldwide. Pheromone (Ferrugineol) traps have been used to monitor and mass trap RPW in area-wide integrated pest management programs (IPM). However, these conventional food baited pheromone traps (FBPTs) have to be periodically serviced (change of food bait and insecticide solution) which is labor intensive. A bait-free method to 'attract and kill' RPW adults, Hook™ RPW, has been recently developed for weevil control in date palm. We tested this formulation against FBPTs for controlling RPW in a date plantation in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Weevil captures were not significantly different in the Hook RPW- and FBPT-treated plots, indicating that both equally sustained trapping efficiency during the test period of 3 mo. Using Hook RPW in and around heavily infested plantations could substantially reduce the cost of an area-wide IPM program due to elimination of trap servicing associated with FBPTs. Additionally, Hook RPW demonstrated the same level of attractiveness with or without the presence of food bait, suggesting that the formulation may be applied directly to non-susceptible date palm trees without the risk of bait-lure synergy which could potentially incite damage to healthy trees. Source

Hoddle M.S.,University of California at Riverside | Al-Abbad A.H.,Directorate of Agriculture | El-Shafie H.A.F.,King Faisal University | Faleiro J.R.,King Faisal University | And 3 more authors.
Crop Protection

The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a highly destructive pest of date palms, Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae), in Saudi Arabia. Data spanning a six year period (2007-2012) from Al Ghowaybah, a 1104ha date producing region in the Al Ahsaa Directorate in Saudi Arabia, were analyzed to assess the impact enhanced management efforts that commenced in Oct. 2009 had against this pest. Within six months of initiating the areawide management program significant reductions in the mean monthly number of weevils trapped and percentage traps with R.ferrugineus were detected. Mean monthly trap captures of R.ferrugineus and the percentage of traps capturing weevils declined significantly from 2009 to 2012 by an average of 65% and 90%, respectively, indicating that trapping and dispersal pressure was significantly reduced. By 2011, average monthly trap captures and percentage of traps with R.ferrugineus were significantly lower than all pre-management capture data and this was maintained through 2012 when data collection ceased. Additionally, over the period 2010-2012, insecticide application and palm eradication rates dropped by 91% and 89%, respectively. The total number of R.ferrugineus captured in 2012 declined by 86% when compared to total captures for 2010. At the end of 2012, the estimated infestation rate of date palms in Al Ghowaybah was 0.36%, which was below the economic threshold of a 1% infestation rate set by the Directorate of Agriculture supervising the program. It is concluded that the mandatory areawide management program that commenced in Oct. 2009 against R.ferrugineus in Al Ghowaybah had a significant and rapid impact against this pest. © 2013 The Authors. Source

Massoud M.,King Faisal University | Faleiro J.,Arlem | El-Saad M.,King Faisal University | Sultan E.,Directorate of Agriculture
Journal of Plant Protection Research

In Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia, the red palm weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) is managed through the use of a pheromone trap based area-wide Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programme, covering nearly 3.0 million date palms.In this study, Geographic Information System (GIS) based techniques were used to study the spatial spread of RPW in two RPW-IPM areas of Al-Hassa viz. Al-Khadoud (297 ha) and Sodah (168 ha) with high and low weevil activity, respectively. The position of RPW pheromone traps in both Al-Khadoud (140 traps) and Sodah (84 traps) were logged using the Trimble Geographic Positioning System (GPS), to determine the East Longitude and North Latitude of each pheromone trap. The Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) co-ordinates for each trap were also recorded.The weevil captures in pheromone traps, and the infestation reports for 2008 in the above operational areas were reported, Based on the reports, the territorial spread of the weevils and spatial distribution of infestations due to RPW on date palm, was depicted for both Al-Khadoud and Sodah at five levels. Further, regression analysis was carried out to ascertain the relationship between annual weevil captures (Y) in pheromone traps and infestation (X) reports for 2008, on a 10 ha scale, in Al-Khadoud and Sodah, through linear regression. Based on high R 2 values (> 0.70), we selected Y = 121.0+4.515X as the model that could quantify the above pest-infestation relationship in Al-Hassa. This study can serve as a basis for incorporating GIS technology for improving the on going RPW management strategy, in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Source

Kishore K.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region | Pathak K.A.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region | Shukla R.,Directorate of Agriculture | Bharali R.,CAR Research Complex for NEH Region
Pakistan Journal of Botany

Floral biology of purple, yellow, giant and Passiflora foetida was studied at the ICAR Research Complex, Mizoram Centre, Kolasib, Mizoram, India during 2005-07. Purple, giant and P. foetida had major bloom during March-April, July-August and September-October. While major bloom in yellow was mainly during May-June and September-October. Purple, giant and P. foetida had the maximum duration of bloom of 42.4, 22.5 and 32.6 days, respectively during March-April with the maximum duration of effective bloom of 12.5 8.6 and 10.4 days in purple, giant and P. foetida, respectively. Yellow had the maximum duration of bloom for 28.4 days and effective bloom of 10.5 days during May-June. Most of the flowers of purple (54.5%) and giant (58.5%) opened between 6-7 hrs, while the maximum per cent of anthesis in yellow (70%) took place between 12-13 hrs. Pollen dehiscence and pollination in purple and giant mainly occurred between 7-8 hrs, while 13-14 hrs was the major period of pollen dehiscence and pollination in yellow. The earliest anthesis (5-6 hrs), anther dehiscence (6-7 hrs) and pollination (6-7 hrs) were recorded in P. foetida. The maximum stigma receptivity was recorded on the day of anthesis in all the passion fruits. Completely curved style was more common in all passion fruits that gave the maximum fruit set. The maximum number of bees observed between 7-8 hrs in purple and giant and between 13-14 hrs in yellow. The most common pollinating bee in purple, giant and yellow was Apis mellifera, while A. cerena was in P. foetida. Source

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