Spontaneous mutations in the plasmodium falciparum sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (PfATP6) gene among geographically widespread parasite populations unexposed to artemisinin-based combination therapies
Tanabe K.,Osaka University |
Zakeri S.,Pasteur Institute of Iran |
Palacpac N.M.Q.,Osaka University |
Afsharpad M.,Pasteur Institute of Iran |
And 5 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2011
Recent reports on the decline of the efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) indicate a serious threat to malaria control. The endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase ortholog of Plasmodium falciparum (PfSERCA) has been suggested to be the target of artemisinin and its derivatives. It is assumed that continuous artemisinin pressure will affect polymorphism of the PfSERCA gene (serca) if the protein is the target. Here, we investigated the polymorphism of serca in parasite populations unexposed to ACTs to obtain baseline information for the study of potential artemisinin-driven selection of resistant parasites. Analysis of 656 full-length sequences from 13 parasite populations in Africa, Asia, Oceania, and South America revealed 64 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which 43 were newly identified and 38 resulted in amino acid substitutions. No isolates showed L263E and S769N substitutions, which were reportedly associated with artemisinin resistance. Among the four continents, the number of SNPs was highest in Africa. In Africa, Asia, and Oceania, common SNPs, or those with a minor allele frequency of ≥0.05, were less prevalent, with most SNPs noted to be continent specific, whereas in South America, common SNPs were highly prevalent and often shared with those in Africa. Of 50 amino acid haplotypes observed, only one haplotype (3D7 sequence) was seen in all four continents (64%). Forty-eight haplotypes had frequencies of less than 5%, and 40 haplotypes were continent specific. The geographical difference in the diversity and distribution of serca SNPs and haplotypes lays the groundwork for assessing whether some artemisinin resistance-associated mutations and haplotypes are selected by ACTs. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Kaur J.,Directorate General of Health Services |
Prasad V.,Tobacco Free Initiative
Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Year: 2011
Background: Air nicotine monitoring is an established method of measuring exposure to second hand smoke (SHS). Not much research has been done in India to measure air nicotine for the purpose of studying exposure to SHS. It is a risk factor and many diseases are known to occur among non smokers if they are exposed to second hand smoke. Objective: To conduct monitoring of air nicotine for second hand smoke exposure in public places across major cities in India. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted across four cities across the country, using passive air monitoring. The buildings included hospitals, secondary schools, Governmental offices, bars and restaurants. The buildings were selected through convenience sampling method keeping in view specific sentinel locations of interest. Result: The presence of air nicotine was recorded in most of the buildings under the study, which included government buildings, hospitals, schools, restaurants and entertainment venues (bars) in all four cities under the study. The highest median levels of air nicotine were found in entertainment venues and restaurants in cities. Conclusion: The presence of air nicotine in indoor public places indicates weak implementation of existing smoke free law in India. The findings of this study provide a baseline characterization of exposure to SHS in public places in India, which could be used to promote clean indoor air policies and programs and monitor and evaluate the progress and future smoke-free initiatives in India.
Vijay S.,National Tuberculosis Institute |
Kumar P.,National Tuberculosis Institute |
Chauhan L.S.,Directorate General of Health Services |
Vollepore B.H.,TB Laboratory Support |
And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010
Background: Poor treatment adherence leading to risk of drug resistance, treatment failure, relapse, death and persistent infectiousness remains an impediment to the tuberculosis control programmes. The objective of the study was to identify predictors of default among new smear positive TB patients registered for treatment to suggest possible interventions to set right the problems to sustain and enhance the programme performance. Methodology & Principal Findings: Twenty districts selected from six states were assigned to six strata formed, considering the geographic, socio-cultural and demographic setup of the area. New smear positive patients registered for treatment in two consecutive quarters during III quarter 2004 to III quarter 2005 formed the retrospective study cohort. Case control analysis was done including defaulted patients as "cases" and equal number of age and sex matched patients completing treatment as "controls". The presence and degree of association between default and determinant factors was computed through univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Data collection was through patient interviews using pretested semi structured questionnaire and review of treatment related records. Information on a wide range of socio demographic and patient related factors was obtained. Among the 687 defaulted and equal numbers of patients in completed group, 389 and 540 patients respectively were satisfactorily interviewed. In the logistic regression analysis, factors independently associated with default were alcoholism [AOR-1.72 (1.23-2.44)], illiteracy [AOR-1.40 (1.03-1.92)], having other commitments during treatment [AOR-3.22 (1.1-9.09)], inadequate knowledge of TB [AOR-1.88(1.35-2.63)], poor patient provider interaction [AOR-1.72(1.23-2.44)], lack of support from health staff [AOR-1.93(1.41-2.64)], having instances of missed doses [AOR-2.56(1.82-3.57)], side effects to anti TB drugs [AOR-2.55 (1.87-3.47)] and dissatisfaction with services provided [AOR-1.73 (1.14-2.6)]. Conclusion: Majority of risk factors for default were treatment and provider oriented and rectifiable with appropriate interventions, which would help in sustaining the good programme performance.© 2010 Vijay et al.
Kapoor S.K.,Harrow Medical Center |
Raman A.V.,University of Delhi |
Sachdeva K.S.,Directorate General of Health Services |
Satyanarayana S.,International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012
Setting: Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP), Delhi, India. Objective: To ascertain the number and sequence of providers visited by TB patients before availing treatment services from DOTS; to describe the duration between onset of symptoms to treatment. Study design: A cross sectional, qualitative study. Information was gathered through in-depth interviews of TB patients registered during the month of Oct, 2012 for availing TB treatment under the Revised National TB Control Programme from four tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment centers in Delhi. Results: Out of the 114 patients who registered, 108 participated in the study. The study showed that informal providers and retail chemists were the first point of contact and source of clinical advice for two-third of the patients, while the rest sought medical care from qualified providers directly. Most patients sought medical care from more than two providers, before being diagnosed as TB. Female TB patients and patients with extra-pulmonary TB had long mean duration between onset of symptoms to initiation of treatment (6.3 months and 8.4 months respectively). Conclusion: The pathways followed by TB patients, illustrated in this study, provide valuable lessons on the importance of different types of providers (both formal and informal) in the health system in a society like India and the delays in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis. © 2012 Kapoor et al.
Sinha S.K.,Drug Of Addiction Center |
Kaur J.,Directorate General of Health Services
Indian Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2011
Mental disorders impose a massive burden in the society. The National Mental Health Programme (NMHP) is being implemented by the Government of India to support state governments in providing mental health services in the country. India is facing shortage of qualified mental health manpower for District Mental Health Programme (DMHP) in particular and for the whole mental health sector in general. Recognizing this key constraint Government of India has formulated manpower development schemes under NMHP to address this issue. Under the scheme 11 centers of excellence in mental health, 120 PG departments in mental health specialties, upgradation of psychiatric wings of medical colleges, modernization of state-run mental hospitals will be supported. The expected outcome of the Manpower Development schemes is 104 psychiatrists, 416 clinical psychologists, 416 PSWs and 820 psychiatric nurses annually once these institutes/departments are established. Together with other components such as DMHP with added services, Information, education and communication activities, NGO component, dedicated monitoring mechanism, research and training, this scheme has the potential to make a facelift of the mental health sector in the country which is essentially dependent on the availability and equitable distribution mental health manpower in the country.
Mondal D.,International Center For Diarrhoeal Disease Research |
Alvar J.,World Health Organization |
Hasnain M.G.,International Center For Diarrhoeal Disease Research |
Hossain M.S.,International Center For Diarrhoeal Disease Research |
And 7 more authors.
The Lancet Global Health | Year: 2014
Background: To rapidly reduce the burden of visceral leishmaniasis for national elimination programmes, an acceptable, safe, and effective treatment is needed that can be delivered at primary health-care centres. We aimed to assess the tolerability, safety, and cure rate of single-dose liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome, Gilead, USA) for visceral leishmaniasis treatment in such a setting in Bangladesh. Methods: We enrolled patients who had been diagnosed with visceral leishmaniasis at Muktagacha upazila (subdistrict) hospital, Bangladesh. Eligible participants were at least 5 years old and had a history of fever for more than 2 weeks, splenomegaly, rK39 rapid test positivity, and haemoglobin concentrations of at least 50 g/L. Participants were provided a one-off intravenous infusion of liposomal amphotericin B (10 mg/kg bodyweight). Clinical assessments were done during treatment, before hospital discharge, and on days 30 and 180 after treatment. Cure was defined as resolution of fever, decrease in spleen size, and an increase in haemoglobin by 10% compared with baseline or to at least 100 g/L. We estimated efficacy in terms of initial cure (at day 30) and final cure (at 6 months), and safety in all patients who were enrolled (intention-to-treat analysis). We also assessed efficacy in all patients who completed treatment and 6 month follow-up after treatment with or without visceral leishmaniasis relapse (per protocol analysis). We assessed acceptability in terms of proportion of patients who consented to treatment. This study was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry, number CTRN12612000367842. Findings: Between March 5, and Aug 14, 2012, 329 (55%) of 594 cases of suspected visceral leishmaniasis were confirmed. Of these cases, five patients did not consent to treatment and 24 were ineligible for treatment. In the intention-to-treat analysis, 261 (87%) of 300 patients achieved initial cure and 290 (97%) achieved final cure. In the per-protocol analysis, 260 (88%) of 296 patients achieved initial cure and 289 (98%) achieved final cure. One patient did not start treatment owing to an allergic reaction to liposomal amphotericin B. During treatment or within 2 h afterwards, 79 (26%) patients developed fever, 109 (36%) had fever with rigor, and 56 (19%) had hypotension. No patients needed referral to a tertiary hospital for management of adverse events. Interpretation: Treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in a primary health-care facility with single-dose liposomal amphotericin B could safely and effectively be adopted by the national visceral leishmaniasis elimination programme in Bangladesh. Funding: Neglected Tropical Diseases (WHO), Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional. © 2013 World Health Organization.
Vijay S.,National Tuberculosis Institute |
Kumar P.,National Tuberculosis Institute |
Chauhan L.S.,Directorate General of Health Services |
Rao S.V.,National Tuberculosis Institute |
Vaidyanathan P.,National Tuberculosis Institute
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011
Background: There is paucity of data from India on the impact of HIV related immunosuppression in response to TB treatment and mortality among HIV infected TB patients. We assessed the TB treatment outcome and mortality in a cohort of HIV infected TB patients treated with intermittent short course chemotherapy under TB control programme in a high HIV prevalent district of south India. Methodology/ Findings: Among 3798 TB patients registered for treatment in Mysore district from July 2007 to June 2008, 281 HIV infected patients formed the study group. The socio-demographic and treatment related data of these patients was obtained from TB and HIV programme records and patient interviews 19 months after TB treatment initiation by field investigators. Treatment success rate of 281 patients was 75% while in smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases it was 62%, attributable to defaults (16%) and deaths (19%). Only 2 patients had treatment failure. Overall, 83 (30%) patients were reported dead; 26 while on treatment and 57 after TB treatment. Association of treatment related factors with treatment outcome and survival status was studied through logistic regression analysis. Factors significantly associated with 'unfavourable outcome' were disease classification as Pulmonary[aOR-1.96, CI (1.02-3.77)], type of patient as retreatment [aOR-4.78, CI (2.12-10.76)], and non initiation of ART [aOR-4.90, CI (1.85-12.96)]. Factors associated with 'Death' were non initiation of ART [aOR-2.80, CI (1.15-6.81)] and CPT [aOR-3.46, CI (1.47-8.14)]. Conclusion: Despite the treatment success of 75% the high mortality (30%) in the study group is a matter of concern and needs immediate intervention. Non initiation of ART has emerged as a high risk factor for unfavourable treatment outcome and mortality. These findings underscore the importance of expanding and improving delivery of ART services as a priority and reconsideration of the programme guidelines for ART initiation in HIV infected TB patients. © 2011 Vijay et al.
Dutta M.,Directorate General of Health Services |
Basu R.N.,Directorate General of Health Services
Vaccine | Year: 2011
Folloing several key breakthroughs during the mid-1960s under the global smallpox eradication programme namely, development of a thermo-stable vaccine, efficient and acceptable technique of it's delivery by bifurcated needle and evolution of a strategy (in lieu of mass vaccination) of active case search and containment, an intensified campaign of smallpox eradication from India was successfully implemented during 1973-1975. A formidable battle was fought, particularly in Bihar state leading to the occurrence of last indigenous case on 17 May 1975. The rapid achievement of eradication of the scourge from India in a record time was hailed as unprecedented in public health history. The single key factor in the achievement was the sustained efforts of a band of national and international epidemiologists, supported by young medical interns heading mobile containment teams, working under trying field conditions. Through the campaign several important lessons were learnt and innovations made. Important among these were: (i) need for refinement of tools, techniques, and strategies for attaining the objective; (ii) implementation of a time and target oriented campaign; (iii) support of adequate and dedicated short term personnel to supplement supervision and field activities; (iv) providing of flexible funding and a convenient disbursement procedure; (v) building private-public partnership; (vi) devising of simple innovations, based on feedback from field, to support activities; (vii) development of political commitment; (viii) improved communication from field to higher levels to enable action on recent information; (ix) regular periodic staff meetings at each administrative level to facilitate early recognition and correction of deficiencies; (x) mobilization of support from international community, whenever required. © 2011.
Lal S.S.,World Health Organization |
Sahu S.,World Health Organization |
Wares F.,World Health Organization |
Lonnroth K.,WHO |
And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2011
SETTING: India's Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) implemented an intensified scale-up of public-private mix (PPM) DOTS covering 50 million population in 14 major cities. OBJECTIVES: To describe the processes and outcomes of the systems approach adopted. METHODS: National schemes for engagement with different providers were applied. Additional human resources were provided to assist with implementation. All health care providers were mapped, a concise training module and advocacy kit were developed, and sensitisation and training activities were conducted. National advocacy efforts complemented local initiatives. Data were captured in a PPM-focused surveillance system. RESULTS: Intensified PPM resulted in a 12% increase in notification of new smear-positive pulmonary TB cases. Contribution to case notification by providers varied widely: health department 67%, medical colleges 16%, private practitioners 6%, non-government organisations 7%, and the rest 4%. Treatment success was above the 85% target for all sectors combined. Strong public sector implementation and differentiation of roles and responsibilities among providers played major roles. The lessons learnt have been used by the RNTCP to inform future policy development. CONCLUSION: The systems approach to the intensified PPM scale-up used in the 14 cities was productive. However, many challenges and barriers to scale-up of PPM DOTS in India remain. © 2011 The Union.
Jose R.,Directorate General of Health Services |
Sachdeva S.,Directorate General of Health Services
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2010
India, the largest democratic country in the world, is marching ahead strongly on the growth and developmental front and is poised to be the leader in the market economy. This role creates and increases far greater responsibilities on us in ensuring that the benefit of the developmental cycle reaches each and every citizen of this country, including the able and the disabled ones. It has been enshrined in the Constitution of India to ensure equality, freedom, justice, and dignity of all individuals and implicitly mandates an inclusive society. With increase in consideration of quality parameters in all spheres of life including availability, access, and provision of comprehensive services to the disabled, it is pertinent to have a look on the contribution of government in keeping the aspiration and commitment towards common people. The article attempts to review the concept of rehabilitation for the disabled keeping a focus on the blind person, and list out the activities, programs/schemes, institutional structure and initiatives taken by the Government of India (GOI) for the same and the incentives/benefits extended to blind persons. The article concludes by reiterating the importance of individual need assessment and mentioning new initiatives proposed on Low Vision services in the approved 11 th plan under National Programme for Control of Blindness (NPCB). The source of information has been annual reports, notification and the approved 11 th five-year plan of GOI, articles published with key words like rehabilitation, disability, assistive devices, low vision aids, and/or blind person through the mode of Internet. Annexure provides a list of selected institutions in the country offering Low Vision services compiled from various sources through personal communication and an approved list of training institutes under NPCB, GOI offering Low Vision training.