Directorate General of Agricultural and Livestock Research

Muscat, Oman

Directorate General of Agricultural and Livestock Research

Muscat, Oman
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Al-Mawaali Q.S.,Directorate General of Agricultural and Livestock Research | Al-Sadi A.M.,Sultan Qaboos University | Al-Said F.A.,Sultan Qaboos University | Deadman M.L.,Sultan Qaboos University
Phytopathologia Mediterranea | Year: 2013

Muskmelon vine decline is considered the most important factor limiting muskmelon production in Oman. This study was conducted to characterize incidence, development, causal agents and response of muskmelon cultivars to this disease. A survey showed that incidence of the disease ranged from 0 to 15% (mean 5%) in spring 2011, 1 to 80% (mean 18%) in autumn 2011 and 0 to15% (mean 10%) in spring 2012. Isolations from 168 affected plants yielded Pythium aphanidermatum (56% of diseased plants sampled), Fusarium spp. (46%), Monosporascus cannonballus (27%), Rhizoctonia solani (22%) and Macrophomina phaseolina (1%). In pathogenicity tests, R. solani, M. cannonballus and P. aphanidermatum were found to be pathogenic to muskmelon. In another experiment over three seasons, M. cannonballus, P. aphanidermatum and R. solani were consistently isolated from muskmelon plants on a weekly basis from 14 days after sowing until the end of the season. However, symptom development only began with the onset of fruiting, which suggests that fruiting stress may be a factor in vine decline disease development. Field assessment of 11 muskmelon cultivars showed that 'Shahd F1' was one of the cultivars least susceptible to vine decline and was relatively high yielding. This is the first record of M. cannonballus as a causal agent of muskmelon vine decline in Oman. © Firenze University Press.

Ali H.G.,Directorate General of Agricultural and Livestock Research
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Date palm cultivation is one of the most important agricultural activities in Oman. The date palm is considered as the first important crop in Oman with a perspective to grow. It presents a widespread, integrated ecological and agricultural system. It occupies about 84.9% of the total fruit area and about 49.3% of the total agricultural land. Not only the domestic demand is met, but a significant surplus for export is generated. Tremendous development has occurred in the production and the distribution of date palm during the last three decades. Date palm trees occupy around 84,500 feddan (35,000 ha), and include more than eight million trees. Since the 1970's, the Ministry of Agriculture has attempted to improve the production of date palm through agricultural research, extension programs and financial support, sustaining various aspects including establishment of tissue culture laboratories with the main objective of providing date palm transplants (offshoots) and preservation of natural resources. Part of the task of the the overall support gene bank is to maintain the most elite Omani date palm. The total production of dates has increased from 173,000 ton in the year 1993 to 298,000 ton in 2001. Environmental constraints such as the limited water resources and the wave of drought that affected the Sultanate in 2002 and 2003 has led to a decline in the date production to 219,772 ton. Yet in 2004-2005 and until 2008 the production of dates has increased to up to 265,000 ton. The development in date production is due to many factors; one of the most important factors is the implementation of new technological methods, including fertilization, insect control, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and disease as well as the start of a strategy for long term development of date palm in Oman.

Ali H.G.,Directorate General of Agricultural and Livestock Research | Nadaf S.K.,Directorate General of Agricultural and Livestock Research | Alkhamisi S.A.,Directorate General of Agricultural and Livestock Research | Al-bakri A.N.,Directorate General of Agricultural and Livestock Research
International Journal of Agriculture and Biology | Year: 2011

Three varieties of canola (Canola 1, Hyola 43 & Hyola 60) were tested in four regions-three in northern Oman viz. Al-Kamil Research Station in Sharqia, Wadi Hibi Research Station in Sohar and Jimah Research Station in Interior region and one at Salalah Research Station in Dhofar province (Southern Oman) to comprehend their response and adaptability to different agroclimate regions of Oman. Experiments were conducted consecutively for three years from 2004/2005 to 2006/2007 during winter (November to April) season. The results demonstrated that there were significant differences for location (Region) with respect to both seed yield and plant height. There were no significant differences among the varieties in seed yield during 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 in Jimah, Sohar and Salalah, while interestingly significant differences were found during 2004/2005 in Al-Kamil and during 2006/2007 in Salalah and Sohar. These results indicated that canola is highly adaptable to different regions of Oman with relative advantage for certain regions for both seed yield productivity and oil content. However, canola can be exploited in all the regions as a source of nectar for honey bees during the period of its blooming. © 2011 Friends Science Publishers.

Al-Marzooqi W.,Sultan Qaboos University | Kadim I.T.,Sultan Qaboos University | Mahgoub O.,Sultan Qaboos University | Al-Busaidi M.,Sultan Qaboos University | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2010

The main objective of this study was to assess the nutritional value of four varieties of barley (Beecher, Jimah 54, Jimah 51 and Jimah 58) using commercial broiler and local poultry strains. Four experimental diets were formulated, representing four different varieties of barley and were evaluated using six replicates of eight birds per cage at 21 day of age. Cages were located in an environmentally controlled room maintained under conditions suitable for birds at this age with a photo-period of 23 h in every 24 h. Diets and water were offered on ad libitum basis. On the fourth day after the adaptation to the experimental diets, feed troughs were removed from every cage for 1 h and then reintroduced for 2 h. Then the birds were killed to allow for sampling of ileal digesta, from Meckel's diverticulum to the ileal-caecal-colonic injunction. Broiler birds showed significantly (p<0.001) higher digestibility coefficients and digestible content of amino acids across all the barley varieties than the local birds. Out of the four barley varieties evaluated in this study, Beecher variety had the lowest amino acids digestibility coefficient and digestible content for the two bird breeds (p<0.001). The digestibility coefficient and digestible content of amino acids estimates for Jimah 54 was the highest across the two strains (p<0.001). The variability in digestibility and digestible content in barley varieties can be attributed to the high fiber levels and the presence of beta-glucan. The results suggest that the class of chickens and variety significantly influenced the apparent ileal digestibility and digestible contents of amino acids in the nutrient assessed in this study. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2010.

Al-Mawaali Q.S.,Directorate General of Agricultural and Livestock Research | Al-Sadi A.M.,Sultan Qaboos University | Khan A.J.,Sultan Qaboos University | Al-Hasani H.D.,Directorate General of Agricultural and Livestock Research | Deadman M.L.,Sultan Qaboos University
Crop Protection | Year: 2012

Damping-off and vine decline diseases affect most greenhouse cucumber crops in Oman, with losses frequently exceeding 25% of seedlings and adult plants. As a consequence of some recent reports that disease control using metalaxyl fungicides were ineffective, seven local and introduced rootstocks were assessed for their response to Pythium aphanidermatum. The rootstocks were also tested for grafting compatibility and production potential under greenhouse conditions. During artificial inoculation trials, no damping-off symptoms were observed in the Hercules and Titan varieties, ridge gourd or sponge gourd. In three separate greenhouse trials, Titan, Hercules and squash var. Magda showed no damping-off or vine decline symptoms up to 45 days after transplanting. When cucumber was grafted onto the seven rootstocks, no symptoms were observed in the cucumber plants grafted onto Titan and Hercules rootstocks, whereas the cucumber grafted onto the other rootstocks showed varying levels of damping-off and vine decline diseases (10-40%). The Titan and Hercules rootstocks significantly increased the vegetative growth and the fruit number, weight and length compared to the self-grafted cucumbers, non-grafted cucumbers and cucumbers that were grafted onto the other rootstocks (P < 0.05). To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to examine the influence of grafting on the resistance to Pythium and on the vegetative growth and yield of greenhouse cucumbers. © 2012.

Al-Saady N.A.,Sultan Qaboos University | Al-Lawati A.H.,Directorate General of Agricultural and Livestock Research | Al-Subhi A.M.,Sultan Qaboos University | Khan A.J.,Sultan Qaboos University
Journal of Plant Sciences | Year: 2010

The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic diversity among eighteen banana cultivars collected from Al-Batinah, Al-Dhakhliya and Dhofar regions of the Sultanate of Oman using AFLP markers. Eleven AFLP primer combinations were used to develop banana DNA fingerprints. Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic mean (UPGMA) cluster analysis yielded three distinct taxa. Banana cultivars, Bahri, Omani, Maisori Fardh, Sokari and Zanzibar from Al-Dhakhliya region grouped in cluster 1, whereas cultivars from Dhofar, Dwarf spotted Cavendish, Somali, Abubaker Philipino, Maisori Fardh, Milk Banana, Plantain Kenya and Sawara Red grouped in cluster 2 and Williams, Somali, Malindi, Red Banana, Maisori Fardh and Nagal cultivars from Al-Batinah region grouped in cluster 3. Multivariate analysis (NTSYS 2.2) of genetic data yielded a total of 1397 alleles, of which 1322 (94.68%) appeared to be polymorphic. The primer combination E-ACT/M-CAC produced 98.15% polymorphic alleles, whereas E-ACA/M-CTG primers showed 160 alleles, the highest number as compared to all other primers used in this study. AFLP based fingerprinting clearly indicated high genetic diversity among banana cultivars grown in different regions of the Sultanate of Oman. © 2010 Academic Journals Inc.

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