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Wandra T.,Directorate General Disease Control and Environmental Health | Wandra T.,Asahikawa University | Sudewi A.R.,Udayana University | Swastika I.K.,Udayana University | And 11 more authors.
Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health | Year: 2011

Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are found in humans in Bali, Indonesia. During a field survey of 660 people in Bali from 2002-2009 of taeniasis/cysticercosis cases using mitochondrial DNA confirmation of the species, we detected 80 cases of T. saginata taeniasis, 2 dual T. saginata/T. solium infections with T. solium metacestodes in the brain and 12 neurocysticercosis (NCC) cases at Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar. Although the prevalence of NCC in Bali is low, sporadic cases are still present. There is no Taenia asiatica in Bali. We summarize here the field survey findings of taeniasis, including 1 dual infection with taeniasis and cysticercosis in 2007, and the reason why there are no T. asiatica cases and we describe 3 NCC cases admitted to Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar, Bali in 2004. Diagnosis was based on anamnesis, clinical examination, including CT Scan, histopathological, serological and mitochondrial DNA examinations. In order to prevent unexpected symptomatic NCC after treatment with praziquantel, we recommend introducing a rapid test to confirm taeniasis carriers and cysticercosis cases as a tool for real time diagnosis.


Bam T.S.,International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Aditama T.Y.,Directorate General Disease Control and Environmental Health | Chiang C.-Y.,International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Chiang C.-Y.,Taipei Medical University | And 2 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2015

Background: Research indicates that smoking substantially increases the risk of tuberculosis (TB), delay in diagnosis, failure of TB treatment and death from TB. Quitting smoking is one of the best ways to prevent unwanted outcomes. Exposure to secondhand smoke increases the risks of both TB infection and development of active TB disease among children and adults. TB patients who smoke in the home are also placing their families at a greater risk of TB infection. It is very important to keep homes smokefree. The present study assessed the implementation and effectiveness of an intervention that promotes smoking cessation and smokefree environments for TB patients. Methods: All consecutive new sputum smear-positive TB patients (aged ≥15 years old) diagnosed and registered in 17 health centres between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2012 were enrolled. The ABC (A=ask, B=brief advice, C=cessation support) intervention was offered for 5 to 10 minutes within DOTS services at each visit. Smoking status and smokefree environments at home were assessed at the first visit, each monthly follow up and at month six. Factors associated with quitting were analysed by univariable and multivariable analysis Results: Of the 750 TB patients registered, 582 (77.6 %) were current smokers, 40 (5.3 %) were ex-smokers and 128 (17.1 %) were never smokers. Of the 582 current smokers, 66.8 % had quit smoking at month six. A time from waking to first cigarette of >30 minutes, having a smokefree home and the display of "no smoking" signage at home at month six were significantly associated with quitting. Of the 750 TB patients, 86.1 % had created a smokefree home at six month follow-up compared with 18.5 % at baseline. All 80 health facilities were 100 % tobacco-free at the end of 2012 compared with only 52 (65 %) when the intervention began in March 2011. Conclusions: Brief advice of 5-10 minutes with minimal cessation support at every visit of TB patients resulted in high quit rates and higher awareness of adverse health effects of secondhand smoke exposure, which led patients to make their homes smokefree and health providers to make health care tobacco-free. © 2015 Bam et al.


Ito A.,Asahikawa University | Okamoto M.,Kyoto University | Li T.,Sichuan CDC | Wandra T.,Directorate General Disease Control and Environmental Health | And 14 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2011

The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa was held in Asahikawa Medical University, Japan on 15 and 16 Feb 2011. This meeting was fully supported by the Asian Science and Technology Strategic Cooperation Promotion Programs sponsored by the Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, the Ministry of Education Japan (MEXT) for 3 years from 2010 to Akira Ito. A total of 24 researchers from 9 countries joined together and discussed the present situation and problems towards the control of cestode zoonoses. As the meeting was simultaneously for the establishment of joint international, either bilateral or multilateral collaboration projects, the main purposes were directed to 1) how to detect taeniasis/cysticercosis infected patients, 2) how to differentiate Taenia solium from two other human Taenia species, T. saginata and T. asiatica, 3) how to evaluate T. asiatica based on the evidence of hybrid and hybrid-derived adult tapeworms from Thailand and China, 4) how to evaluate T. solium and T. hyaenae and other Taenia species from the wild animals in Ethiopia, and 5) how to detect echinococcosis patients and 6) how to differentiate Echinococcus species worldwide. Such important topics are summarized in this meeting report. © 2011 Ito et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Aditama T.Y.,Directorate General Disease Control and Environmental Health | Samaan G.,Australian National University | Kusriastuti R.,Directorate General Disease Control and Environmental Health | Sampurno O.D.,National Health Research Institute | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Disease transmission patterns are needed to inform public health interventions, but remain largely unknown for avian influenza H5N1 virus infections. A recent study on the 139 outbreaks detected in Indonesia between 2005 and 2009 found that the type of exposure to sources of H5N1 virus for both the index case and their household members impacted the risk of additional cases in the household. This study describes the disease transmission patterns in those outbreak households. Methodology/Principal Findings: We compared cases (n = 177) and contacts (n = 496) in the 113 sporadic and 26 cluster outbreaks detected between July 2005 and July 2009 to estimate attack rates and disease intervals. We used final size household models to fit transmission parameters to data on household size, cases and blood-related household contacts to assess the relative contribution of zoonotic and human-to-human transmission of the virus, as well as the reproduction number for human virus transmission. The overall household attack rate was 18.3% and secondary attack rate was 5.5%. Secondary attack rate remained stable as household size increased. The mean interval between onset of subsequent cases in outbreaks was 5.6 days. The transmission model found that human transmission was very rare, with a reproduction number between 0.1 and 0.25, and the upper confidence bounds below 0.4. Transmission model fit was best when the denominator population was restricted to blood-related household contacts of index cases. Conclusions/Significance: The study only found strong support for human transmission of the virus when a single large cluster was included in the transmission model. The reproduction number was well below the threshold for sustained transmission. This study provides baseline information on the transmission dynamics for the current zoonotic virus and can be used to detect and define signatures of a virus with increasing capacity for human-to-human transmission. © 2012 Aditama et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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