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Calavas D.,Laboratoire Of Lyon | Collin E.,Societe Nationale des Groupements Techniques Veterinaires SNGTV | Hendrikx P.,Direction scientifique des laboratoires
OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique | Year: 2013

Veterinary practitioners are often involved in epidemiological surveillance systems, where their task is to detect animals suspected of suffering from diseases subject to surveillance and to include them in surveillance. However, these two tasks - practising veterinary medicine and taking part in surveillance - are based on different paradigms. Faced with a sick animal, a practitioner tries to maximise the probability of a correct diagnosis, whereas, when implementing surveillance, a veterinarian is required to maximise the inclusion of suspected cases in surveillance systems. Based on an analysis of the difficulties and problems posed by these coexisting tasks, the authors propose potential solutions through veterinary education and training. The implementers and coordinators of epidemiological surveillance systems must take these factors into account.

Llorens I.,European Synchrotron Radiation Facility | Llorens I.,CEA Grenoble | Untereiner G.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Jaillard D.,University Paris - Sud | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Depending on speciation, U environmental contamination may be spread through the environment or inversely restrained to a limited area. Induction of U precipitation via biogenic or non-biogenic processes would reduce the dissemination of U contamination. To this aim U oxidation/reduction processes triggered by bacteria are presently intensively studied. Using X-ray absorption analysis, we describe in the present article the ability of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and Rhodopseudomonas palustris, highly resistant to a variety of metals and metalloids or to organic pollutants, to withstand high concentrations of U and to immobilize it either through biosorption or through reduction to non-uraninite U(IV)-phosphate or U(IV)-carboxylate compounds. These bacterial strains are thus good candidates for U bioremediation strategies, particularly in the context of multi-pollutant or mixed-waste contaminations. © 2012 Llorens et al.

Perrin J.-B.,Laboratoire Of Lyon | Perrin J.-B.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Ducrot C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Vinard J.-L.,Laboratoire Of Lyon | And 2 more authors.
Productions Animales | Year: 2011

Cattle mortality represents both an economical and an animal welfare issue. We analyzed the data recorded in the National Cattle Register from 2003 to 2009, gathering data about 75 million cattle, to provide reliable statistics of cattle mortality in France. On average over this period, the perinatal mortality risk in males and females reached respectively 7.9% and 6.0% in dairy cattle, and 4.7% and 3.2% in beef cattle. The average annual mortality risk of animals over two years was 3.5% for dairy and 2.0% for beef cattle. Mortality of dairy cattle was significantly higher than that of beef cattle for the ten age groups studied, except for those of one to two years. Weekly data were modeled to describe the seasonality of mortality, which was different among the different sub-population groups. The mortality rate of calves less than seven days old showed two peaks of equal magnitude (in December and July), while other age groups showed a major peak in the winter, apparently associated in adults to the peak of calving. The modeling results of the model also revealed a significant increase in death rates from 2003 to 2009, probably partly due to the blue tongue epizootic that spread in France from 2007 to 2008. Rising rates of cattle mortality have already been observed in many countries, suggesting the need to implement corrective measures.

Perrin J.-B.,Unite Epidemiologie | Perrin J.-B.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Ducrot C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Vinard J.-L.,Unite Epidemiologie | And 3 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2012

Census and disposal data provide a multipurpose source of information on cattle mortality. The retrospective analyses we conducted on the data gathered in the National Cattle Register produced relevant information for describing and modelling the cattle mortality baseline and evaluating the impact of the 2007-2008 Blue Tongue epidemic on the French cattle population. This work was conducted retrospectively but showed that monitoring cattle mortality near real time could help detecting unexpected events. We are thus currently working on a timely and automated system to monitor cadaver disposal requests received by rendering plants, thanks to a data interchange system recently implemented between the Ministry of Agriculture and the fallen stock companies. Besides technical and methodological challenges, using these data for surveillance purposes raises epidemiological questions that still need to be answered. The question remains notably as to whether an abnormal increased mortality is a sensitive and timely signal for detecting unexpected health events. It appears also very challenging to identify the most adequate surveillance scale (time, space and population) and the most adequate anomaly detection algorithms to apply when the characteristics of the signals to be detected (shape, amplitude, etc.) are not known a priori. In Human health, similar systems have not yet proven their ability to detect unexpected events earlier than classical surveillance systems currently in place, but they have already demonstrated their value for real time assessment of identified and potentially dangerous events. Combined with traditional surveillance systems, we think that monitoring routinely collected data could improve the surveillance of the animal population health. Even if not used for detection purposes, cattle mortality monitoring could be used to rapidly produce information on the impact and evolution of identified events, what would facilitate decision-making regarding management measures and improve the communication. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Sorbe A.,Laboratoire Of Lyon | Chazel M.,Laboratoire Of Lyon | Gay E.,Laboratoire Of Lyon | Haenni M.,Laboratoire Of Lyon | And 2 more authors.
Revue d'Epidemiologie et de Sante Publique | Year: 2011

Background: Develop and calculate performance indicators allows to continuously follow the operation of an epidemiological surveillance network. This is an internal evaluation method, implemented by the coordinators in collaboration with all the actors of the network. Its purpose is to detect weak points in order to optimize management. A method for the development of performance indicators of epidemiological surveillance networks was developed in 2004 and was applied to several networks. Its implementation requires a thorough description of the network environment and all its activities to define priority indicators. Since this method is considered to be complex, our objective consisted in developing a simplified approach and applying it to an epidemiological surveillance network. Methods: We applied the initial method to a theoretical network model to obtain a list of generic indicators that can be adapted to any surveillance network. Results: We obtained a list of 25 generic performance indicators, intended to be reformulated and described according to the specificities of each network. It was used to develop performance indicators for RESAPATH, an epidemiological surveillance network of antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic bacteria of animal origin in France. Conclusion: This application allowed us to validate the simplified method, its value in terms of practical implementation, and its level of user acceptance. Its ease of use and speed of application compared to the initial method argue in favor of its use on broader scale. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS.

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