Direction scientifique des laboratoires

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France
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Dupuy C.,Unite Epidemiologie | Dupuy C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bronner A.,Unite Epidemiologie | Watson E.,Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency AHVLA Weybridge | And 7 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2013

Within the current context that favours the emergence of new diseases, syndromic surveillance (SyS) appears increasingly more relevant tool for the early detection of unexpected health events. The Triple-S project (Syndromic Surveillance Systems in Europe), co-financed by the European Commission, was launched in September 2010 for a three year period to promote both human and animal health SyS in European countries. Objectives of the project included performing an inventory of current and planned European animal health SyS systems and promoting knowledge transfer between SyS experts. This study presents and discusses the results of the Triple-S inventory of European veterinary SyS initiatives. European SyS systems were identified through an active process based on a questionnaire sent to animal health experts involved in SyS in Europe. Results were analyzed through a descriptive analysis and a multiple factor analysis (MFA) in order to establish a typology of the European SyS initiatives. Twenty seven European SyS systems were identified from twelve countries, at different levels of development, from project phase to active systems. Results of this inventory showed a real interest of European countries for SyS but also highlighted the novelty of this field. This survey highlighted the diversity of SyS systems in Europe in terms of objectives, population targeted, data providers, indicators monitored. For most SyS initiatives, statistical analysis of surveillance results was identified as a limitation in using the data. MFA results distinguished two types of systems. The first one belonged to the private sector, focused on companion animals and had reached a higher degree of achievement. The second one was based on mandatory collected data, targeted livestock species and is still in an early project phase. The exchange of knowledge between human and animal health sectors was considered useful to enhance SyS. In the same way that SyS is complementary to traditional surveillance, synergies between human and animal health SyS could be an added value, most notably to enhance timeliness, sensitivity and help interpreting non-specific signals. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Dupuy C.,Unite Epidemiologie | Dupuy C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Morignat E.,Unite Epidemiologie | Maugey X.,Directorate General of Armaments | And 5 more authors.
BMC Veterinary Research | Year: 2013

Background: The slaughterhouse is a central processing point for food animals and thus a source of both demographic data (age, breed, sex) and health-related data (reason for condemnation and condemned portions) that are not available through other sources. Using these data for syndromic surveillance is therefore tempting. However many possible reasons for condemnation and condemned portions exist, making the definition of relevant syndromes challenging.The objective of this study was to determine a typology of cattle with at least one portion of the carcass condemned in order to define syndromes. Multiple factor analysis (MFA) in combination with clustering methods was performed using both health-related data and demographic data.Results: Analyses were performed on 381,186 cattle with at least one portion of the carcass condemned among the 1,937,917 cattle slaughtered in ten French abattoirs. Results of the MFA and clustering methods led to 12 clusters considered as stable according to year of slaughter and slaughterhouse. One cluster was specific to a disease of public health importance (cysticercosis). Two clusters were linked to the slaughtering process (fecal contamination of heart or lungs and deterioration lesions). Two clusters respectively characterized by chronic liver lesions and chronic peritonitis could be linked to diseases of economic importance to farmers. Three clusters could be linked respectively to reticulo-pericarditis, fatty liver syndrome and farmer's lung syndrome, which are related to both diseases of economic importance to farmers and herd management issues. Three clusters respectively characterized by arthritis, myopathy and Dark Firm Dry (DFD) meat could notably be linked to animal welfare issues. Finally, one cluster, characterized by bronchopneumonia, could be linked to both animal health and herd management issues.Conclusion: The statistical approach of combining multiple factor analysis with cluster analysis showed its relevance for the detection of syndromes using available large and complex slaughterhouse data. The advantages of this statistical approach are to i) define groups of reasons for condemnation based on meat inspection data, ii) help grouping reasons for condemnation among a list of various possible reasons for condemnation for which a consensus among experts could be difficult to reach, iii) assign each animal to a single syndrome which allows the detection of changes in trends of syndromes to detect unusual patterns in known diseases and emergence of new diseases. © 2013 Dupuy et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Llorens I.,European Synchrotron Radiation Facility | Llorens I.,CEA Grenoble | Untereiner G.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Jaillard D.,University Paris - Sud | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Depending on speciation, U environmental contamination may be spread through the environment or inversely restrained to a limited area. Induction of U precipitation via biogenic or non-biogenic processes would reduce the dissemination of U contamination. To this aim U oxidation/reduction processes triggered by bacteria are presently intensively studied. Using X-ray absorption analysis, we describe in the present article the ability of Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34 and Rhodopseudomonas palustris, highly resistant to a variety of metals and metalloids or to organic pollutants, to withstand high concentrations of U and to immobilize it either through biosorption or through reduction to non-uraninite U(IV)-phosphate or U(IV)-carboxylate compounds. These bacterial strains are thus good candidates for U bioremediation strategies, particularly in the context of multi-pollutant or mixed-waste contaminations. © 2012 Llorens et al.


Perrin J.-B.,Unite Epidemiologie | Perrin J.-B.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Ducrot C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Vinard J.-L.,Unite Epidemiologie | And 3 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2012

Census and disposal data provide a multipurpose source of information on cattle mortality. The retrospective analyses we conducted on the data gathered in the National Cattle Register produced relevant information for describing and modelling the cattle mortality baseline and evaluating the impact of the 2007-2008 Blue Tongue epidemic on the French cattle population. This work was conducted retrospectively but showed that monitoring cattle mortality near real time could help detecting unexpected events. We are thus currently working on a timely and automated system to monitor cadaver disposal requests received by rendering plants, thanks to a data interchange system recently implemented between the Ministry of Agriculture and the fallen stock companies. Besides technical and methodological challenges, using these data for surveillance purposes raises epidemiological questions that still need to be answered. The question remains notably as to whether an abnormal increased mortality is a sensitive and timely signal for detecting unexpected health events. It appears also very challenging to identify the most adequate surveillance scale (time, space and population) and the most adequate anomaly detection algorithms to apply when the characteristics of the signals to be detected (shape, amplitude, etc.) are not known a priori. In Human health, similar systems have not yet proven their ability to detect unexpected events earlier than classical surveillance systems currently in place, but they have already demonstrated their value for real time assessment of identified and potentially dangerous events. Combined with traditional surveillance systems, we think that monitoring routinely collected data could improve the surveillance of the animal population health. Even if not used for detection purposes, cattle mortality monitoring could be used to rapidly produce information on the impact and evolution of identified events, what would facilitate decision-making regarding management measures and improve the communication. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Perrin J.-B.,Laboratoire Of Lyon | Perrin J.-B.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Ducrot C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Vinard J.-L.,Laboratoire Of Lyon | And 2 more authors.
Productions Animales | Year: 2011

Cattle mortality represents both an economical and an animal welfare issue. We analyzed the data recorded in the National Cattle Register from 2003 to 2009, gathering data about 75 million cattle, to provide reliable statistics of cattle mortality in France. On average over this period, the perinatal mortality risk in males and females reached respectively 7.9% and 6.0% in dairy cattle, and 4.7% and 3.2% in beef cattle. The average annual mortality risk of animals over two years was 3.5% for dairy and 2.0% for beef cattle. Mortality of dairy cattle was significantly higher than that of beef cattle for the ten age groups studied, except for those of one to two years. Weekly data were modeled to describe the seasonality of mortality, which was different among the different sub-population groups. The mortality rate of calves less than seven days old showed two peaks of equal magnitude (in December and July), while other age groups showed a major peak in the winter, apparently associated in adults to the peak of calving. The modeling results of the model also revealed a significant increase in death rates from 2003 to 2009, probably partly due to the blue tongue epizootic that spread in France from 2007 to 2008. Rising rates of cattle mortality have already been observed in many countries, suggesting the need to implement corrective measures.


Calavas D.,Laboratoire Of Lyon | Collin E.,Societe Nationale des Groupements Techniques Veterinaires SNGTV | Hendrikx P.,Direction Scientifique des Laboratoires
OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique | Year: 2013

Veterinary practitioners are often involved in epidemiological surveillance systems, where their task is to detect animals suspected of suffering from diseases subject to surveillance and to include them in surveillance. However, these two tasks - practising veterinary medicine and taking part in surveillance - are based on different paradigms. Faced with a sick animal, a practitioner tries to maximise the probability of a correct diagnosis, whereas, when implementing surveillance, a veterinarian is required to maximise the inclusion of suspected cases in surveillance systems. Based on an analysis of the difficulties and problems posed by these coexisting tasks, the authors propose potential solutions through veterinary education and training. The implementers and coordinators of epidemiological surveillance systems must take these factors into account.


Bronner A.,Unite Epidemiologie Du Laboratoire Of Lyon | Henaux V.,Unite Epidemiologie Du Laboratoire Of Lyon | Vergne T.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Vergne T.,Laboratoire Of Sante Animale Of Maisons Alfort | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The mandatory bovine abortion notification system in France aims to detect as soon as possible any resurgence of bovine brucellosis. However, under-reporting seems to be a major limitation of this system. We used a unilist capture-recapture approach to assess the sensitivity, i.e. the proportion of farmers who reported at least one abortion among those who detected such events, and representativeness of the system during 2006-2011. We implemented a zero-inflated Poisson model to estimate the proportion of farmers who detected at least one abortion, and among them, the proportion of farmers not reporting. We also applied a hurdle model to evaluate the effect of factors influencing the notification process. We found that the overall surveillance sensitivity was about 34%, and was higher in beef than dairy cattle farms. The observed increase in the proportion of notifying farmers from 2007 to 2009 resulted from an increase in the surveillance sensitivity in 2007/2008 and an increase in the proportion of farmers who detected at least one abortion in 2008/2009. These patterns suggest a raise in farmers' awareness in 2007/2008 when the Bluetongue Virus (BTV) was detected in France, followed by an increase in the number of abortions in 2008/2009 as BTV spread across the country. Our study indicated a lack of sensitivity of the mandatory bovine abortion notification system, raising concerns about the ability to detect brucellosis outbreaks early. With the increasing need to survey the zoonotic Rift Valley Fever and Q fever diseases that may also cause bovine abortions, our approach is of primary interest for animal health stakeholders to develop information programs to increase abortion notifications. Our framework combining hurdle and ZIP models may also be applied to estimate the completeness of other clinical surveillance systems. © 2013 Bronner et al.


Sorbe A.,Laboratoire Of Lyon | Chazel M.,Laboratoire Of Lyon | Gay E.,Laboratoire Of Lyon | Haenni M.,Laboratoire Of Lyon | And 2 more authors.
Revue d'Epidemiologie et de Sante Publique | Year: 2011

Background: Develop and calculate performance indicators allows to continuously follow the operation of an epidemiological surveillance network. This is an internal evaluation method, implemented by the coordinators in collaboration with all the actors of the network. Its purpose is to detect weak points in order to optimize management. A method for the development of performance indicators of epidemiological surveillance networks was developed in 2004 and was applied to several networks. Its implementation requires a thorough description of the network environment and all its activities to define priority indicators. Since this method is considered to be complex, our objective consisted in developing a simplified approach and applying it to an epidemiological surveillance network. Methods: We applied the initial method to a theoretical network model to obtain a list of generic indicators that can be adapted to any surveillance network. Results: We obtained a list of 25 generic performance indicators, intended to be reformulated and described according to the specificities of each network. It was used to develop performance indicators for RESAPATH, an epidemiological surveillance network of antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic bacteria of animal origin in France. Conclusion: This application allowed us to validate the simplified method, its value in terms of practical implementation, and its level of user acceptance. Its ease of use and speed of application compared to the initial method argue in favor of its use on broader scale. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Ouagal M.,Ministere de lElevage | Ouagal M.,Institute Of Medecine Tropicale Prince Leopold | Ouagal M.,University of Liège | Berkvens D.,Institute Of Medecine Tropicale Prince Leopold | And 3 more authors.
OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique | Year: 2012

In sub-Saharan Africa, most epidemiological surveillance networks for animal diseases were temporarily funded by foreign aid. It should be possible for national public funds to ensure the sustainability of such decision support tools. Taking the epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in Chad (REPIMAT) as an example, this study aims to estimate the network's cost by identifying the various costs and expenditures for each level of intervention. The network cost was estimated on the basis of an analysis of the operational organisation of REPIMAT, additional data collected in surveys and interviews with network field workers and a market price listing for Chad. These costs were then compared with those of other epidemiological surveillance networks in West Africa. The study results indicate that REPIMAT costs account for 3% of the State budget allocated to the Ministry of Livestock. In Chad in general, as in other West African countries, fixed costs outweigh variable costs at every level of intervention. The cost of surveillance principally depends on what is needed for surveillance at the local level (monitoring stations) and at the intermediate level (official livestock sectors and regional livestock delegations) and on the cost of the necessary equipment. In African countries, the cost of surveillance per square kilometre depends on livestock density.

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