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Vreysen M.J.B.,International Atomic Energy Agency | Seck M.T.,ISRA LNERV | Sall B.,Direction des Services Veterinaires | Bouyer J.,ISRA LNERV | Bouyer J.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology | Year: 2013

Tsetse flies are the cyclical vectors of trypanosomes, the causative agents of 'sleeping sickness' or human African trypanosomosis (HAT) in humans and 'nagana' or African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) in livestock in Sub-saharan Africa. Many consider HAT as one of the major neglected tropical diseases and AAT as the single greatest health constraint to increased livestock production. This review provides some background information on the taxonomy of tsetse flies, their unique way of reproduction (adenotrophic viviparity) making the adult stage the only one easily accessable for control, and how their ecological affinities, their distribution and population dynamics influence and dictate control efforts. The paper likewise reviews four control tactics (sequential aerosol technique, stationary attractive devices, live bait technique and the sterile insect technique) that are currently accepted as friendly to the environment, and describes their limitations and advantages and how they can best be put to practise in an IPM context. The paper discusses the different strategies for tsetse control i.e. localised versus area-wide and focusses thereafter on the principles of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) and the phased-conditional approach with the tsetse project in Senegal as a recent example. We argue that sustainable tsetse-free zones can be created on Africa mainland provided certain managerial and technical prerequisites are in place. © 2012 International Atomic Energy Agency. Source

Seck M.T.,Institute Senegalais Of Recherches Agricoles | Bouyer J.,Institute Senegalais Of Recherches Agricoles | Bouyer J.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Sall B.,Direction des Services Veterinaires | And 2 more authors.
Parasite | Year: 2010

In 2005, the Government of Senegal initiated a tsetse eradication campaign in the Niayes and La Petite Côte aiming at the removal of African Animal Trypanosomosis (AAT), which is one of the main constraints to the development of more effective cattle production systems. The target area has particular meteorological and ecological characteristics that provide great potential for animal production, but it is unfortunately still infested by the riverine tsetse species Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank (Diptera: Glossinidae). The tsetse project in Senegal has adopted an areawide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approach that targets the entire tsetse population within a delimited area. During the first phase of the programme, a feasibility study was conducted that included the collection of entomological, veterinary, population genetics, environmental and socio-economic baseline data. This paper presents the parasitological and serological prevalence data of AAT in cattle residing inside and outside the tsetse-infested areas of the target zone prior to the control effort. At the herd level, a mean parasitological prevalence of 2.4% was observed, whereas a serological prevalence of 28.7%, 4.4%, and 0.3% was obtained for Trypanosoma vivax, T. congolense and T. brucei brucei, respectively. The observed infection risk was 3 times higher for T. congolense and T. vivax in the tsetse-infested than in the assumed tsetse-free areas. Moreover, AAT prevalence decreased significantly with distance from the nearest tsetse captured which indicated that cyclical transmission of the parasites by tsetse was predominant over mechanical transmission by numerous other biting flies present. The importance of these results for the development of a control strategy for the planned AW-IPM campaign is discussed. Source

Bouyer J.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Bouyer J.,Institute Senegalais Of Recherches Agricoles | Seck M.T.,Institute Senegalais Of Recherches Agricoles | Sall B.,Direction des Services Veterinaires | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2010

The riverine tsetse species Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank 1949 (Diptera: Glossinidae) inhabits riparian forests along river systems in West Africa. The government of Senegal has embarked on a project to eliminate this tsetse species, and African animal trypanosomoses, from the Niayes area using an area-wide integrated pest management approach. A stratified entomological sampling strategy was therefore developed using spatial analytical tools and mathematical modeling. A preliminary phytosociological census identified eight types of suitable habitat, which could be discriminated from LandSat 7 ETM + satellite images and denominated wet areas. At the end of March 2009, 683 unbaited Vavoua traps had been deployed, and the observed infested area in the Niayes was 525 km2. In the remaining area, a mathematical model was used to assess the risk that flies were present despite a sequence of zero catches. The analysis showed that this risk was above 0.05 in 19% of this area that will be considered as infested during the control operations. The remote sensing analysis that identified the wet areas allowed a restriction of the area to be surveyed to 4% of the total surface area (7,150 km2), whereas the mathematical model provided an efficient method to improve the accuracy and the robustness of the sampling protocol. The final size of the control area will be decided based on the entomological collection data. This entomological sampling procedure might be used for other vector or pest control scenarios. © 2010 Entomological Society of America. Source

Solano P.,CIRDES Center International Of Recherche Developpement Sur Lelevage En Zone Sub Humide | Kaba D.,Institute Pierre Richet | Ravel S.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Dyer N.A.,Vector Group | And 10 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2010

Background: The Government of Senegal has initiated the "Projet de lutte contreles glossines dans les Niayes" to remove the trypanosomosis problem from this area in a sustainable way. Due to past failures to sustainably eradicate Glossina palpalis gambiensis from the Niayes area, controversies remain as to the best strategy implement, i.e. "eradication" versus "suppression." To inform this debate, we used population genetics to measure genetic differentiation between G. palpalis gambiensis from the Niayes and those from the southern tsetse belt (Missira). Methodology/Principal Findings: Three different markers (microsatellite DNA, mitochondrial CO1 DNA, and geometric morphometrics of the wings) were used on 153 individuals and revealed that the G. p. gambiensis populations of the Niayes were genetically isolated from the nearest proximate known population of Missira. The genetic differentiation measured between these two areas (θ = 0.12 using microsatellites) was equivalent to a between-taxa differentiation. We also demonstrated that within the Niayes, the population from Dakar - Hann was isolated from the others and had probably experienced a bottleneck. Conclusion/Significance: The information presented in this paper leads to the recommendation that an eradication strategy for the Niayes populations is advisable. This kind of study may be repeated in other habitats and for other tsetse species to (i) help decision on appropriate tsetse control strategies and (ii) find other possible discontinuities in tsetse distribution. © 2010 Solano et al. Source

Leal Mubarqui R.,Servicios Aereos Biologicos Y Forestales Mubarqui | Perez R.C.,Servicios Aereos Biologicos Y Forestales Mubarqui | Kladt R.A.,Servicios Aereos Biologicos Y Forestales Mubarqui | Lopez J.L.,Programa Moscamed | And 4 more authors.
PloS one | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Beyond insecticides, alternative methods to control insect pests for agriculture and vectors of diseases are needed. Management strategies involving the mass-release of living control agents have been developed, including genetic control with sterile insects and biological control with parasitoids, for which aerial release of insects is often required. Aerial release in genetic control programmes often involves the use of chilled sterile insects, which can improve dispersal, survival and competitiveness of sterile males. Currently available means of aerially releasing chilled fruit flies are however insufficiently precise to ensure homogeneous distribution at low release rates and no device is available for tsetse.METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present the smart aerial release machine, a new design by the Mubarqui Company, based on the use of vibrating conveyors. The machine is controlled through Bluetooth by a tablet with Android Operating System including a completely automatic guidance and navigation system (MaxNav software). The tablet is also connected to an online relational database facilitating the preparation of flight schedules and automatic storage of flight reports. The new machine was compared with a conveyor release machine in Mexico using two fruit flies species (Anastrepha ludens and Ceratitis capitata) and we obtained better dispersal homogeneity (% of positive traps, p<0.001) for both species and better recapture rates for Anastrepha ludens (p<0.001), especially at low release densities (<1500 per ha). We also demonstrated that the machine can replace paper boxes for aerial release of tsetse in Senegal.CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This technology limits damages to insects and allows a large range of release rates from 10 flies/km2 for tsetse flies up to 600,000 flies/km2 for fruit flies. The potential of this machine to release other species like mosquitoes is discussed. Plans and operating of the machine are provided to allow its use worldwide. Source

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