Kaur J.,Direct Of Maize Research |
Kumar P.,Direct Of Maize Research |
Singh J.,Direct Of Maize Research |
Suby S.B.,Direct Of Maize Research |
And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2015
To study the egg laying pattern of Sesamia inferens (Walker) on maize (Zea mays L.), a set of variable number of 12-day old plants, i e 1, 2, 3 and 4 plants in each set of resistant cultivar HQPM 1 and susceptible cultivar, Basi Local were offered to a single pair of adult S. inferens in versatile insect rearing cage. The number of eggs laid on HQPM 1 was 47.7 % more than the number of eggs laid on Basi Local. When only one plant was available for oviposition, the female laid 84% of its eggs complement on it both in case of HQPM 1 and Basi Local. The number of eggs was divided unequally when two plants were made available with the first plant receiving 60-70% of the eggs. The maximum number of plants utilized for depositing the eggs was four out of ten plants offered to the female, although at times, the female oviposited six plants as well but the total number of eggs did not increase when the number of plants exceeded more than four, on contrary, it got reduced. The distribution pattern of eggs on plants resulted in the decline in number of eggs per plant with increase of every additional plant. The egg distribution within a plant showed significantly more percentage (58.57) of eggs on first leaf sheath followed by second leaf sheath (27.19) and least number on basal leaf sheath (14.24). The total oviposition period was observed to be seven days with average fecundity as 405 and maximum number of eggs (174) obtained on second day of emergence of adults.
Jat S.L.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute |
Shivay Y.S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute |
Parihar C.M.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute |
Parihar C.M.,Direct Of Maize Research
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2014
A field experiment was conducted during 2007-09 at the research farm of IARI, New Delhi, India; to study the effects of dual-purpose summer legumes and zinc fertilization in aromatic hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.)-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping system. The higher system productivity, N and Zn uptake, nutrient-use efficiencies, net return and B:C ratio were recorded in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] or mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) residue incorporated plots. The N balance was negative (-) in all treatments but it was least negative (-) in cowpea among summer treatments followed by mungbean. The highest N and Zn uptake, system productivity in terms of grain yield, i.e. 12.32 and 12.71 tonnes/ha was observed with application of 2.0% ZEU (ZnSO 4·7H2O). Among the Zn fertilization treatments the lowest negative (-) balance of N was recorded with control (only N), i.e. -36.92 kg/ha in 2007-08 however in 2008-09 it was recorded with coating material coated urea, i.e. -39.54 kg N/ha over rest of the Zn treatments. The application of 5.0 kg Zn/ha (ZnO) gave the highest (2 696 and 2 601 g/ha during 2007-08 and 2008-09, respectively) positive Zn balance under rice-wheat cropping system. Partial factor productivity, agronomic efficiency, apparent recovery and physiological efficiency of applied N and Zn in rice-wheat cropping system were increased with Zn-enriched urea. The agronomic efficiency of N with 2.0% ZEU (ZnSO4·7H2O) increased by 49.7% and the N recovery efficiency in grain increased up to 57.6% over normal practice of prilled urea application. With the application of 2.0% ZEU (ZnSO4·7H 2O) the agronomic efficiency of Zn increased in the range of 54 to 160% while Zn apparent recovery (%) in grain increased from 70 to 318% over 2.0% ZEU (ZnO) and 5.0 kg Zn/ha (ZnO), respectively. The dual-purpose summer legume incorporation in rice-wheat system gave higher net returns by 29 to 34% in 2007-08 and 42 to 45% during 2008-09 over summer fallow with B:C ratio up to 3.01. The application of 2.0% ZEU (ZnSO4·7H2O) gave the highest B:C ratio of 3.02 and increased net returns of aromatic-hybrid rice-wheat system by 11.6 to 12.2% over prilled urea application.