Direct Manufacturing Research Center

Paderborn, Germany

Direct Manufacturing Research Center

Paderborn, Germany
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Leuders S.,Direct Manufacturing Research Center | Meiners S.,Lehrstuhl fur Leichtbau im Automobil Automotive Lightweight Construction | Wu L.,Voestalpine AG | Wu L.,IWT - Foundation Institute of Materials Engineering | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Materials Processing Technology | Year: 2017

Selective Laser Melting (SLM) has recently gained increasing interest due to numerous advantages related to additive manufacturing, e.g., the unrivaled level of design freedom and the feasibility of tool-free production directly from CAD-data. Thus, this manufacturing technique will more and more complement existing production chains and compete with traditional processes. In case of the here considered titanium alloy Ti‐6Al‐4V, which is of high interest for various applications in the aerospace industry, complex components are currently often produced by investment casting (IC). Although both processes have their inherent advantages and drawbacks, a fundamental comparison of a component manufactured by these techniques has not been performed so far. Therefore, the present study investigates the impact of application-oriented process routes on the resulting properties of Ti‐6Al‐4V, manufactured by the aforementioned manufacturing processes. Employing hot isostatic pressing, shot peening and numerous test procedures on lab-scale specimens and demonstrator components it is shown that the monotonic stress-strain behavior of SLM-processed Ti‐6Al‐4V is superior to the IC-counterparts. But still, due to process-induced defects within the SLM-parts, this is contrary for loadings in the high-cycle fatigue regime. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Adam G.,Direct Manufacturing Research Center
Innovative Developments in Virtual and Physical Prototyping - Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Advanced Research and Rapid Prototyping | Year: 2012

Design rules for additive manufacturing processes support the manufacturing orientated designing for additive manufactured products. Thus they contribute an important influence on the acceptance of these processes at a broad spectrum of users. The research project "Direct Manufacturing Design Rules" (DMDR) was initiated by the chair for design and drive technology (KAt, University of Paderborn) and is handled in collaboration with the Direct Manufacturing Research Centre (DMRC, University of Paderborn). Design rules for additive manufacturing processes will be developed. The laser sintering, laser melting and fused deposition modeling processes are considered. Project seminars support the practice orientated review of the developed design rules. As well further research needs can be identified during the project seminars. © 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, London.

Adam G.A.O.,Direct Manufacturing Research Center | Zimmer D.,Direct Manufacturing Research Center
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Additive Manufacturing technologies create parts layer by layer. Thereby, lots of benefits are offered. Especially extended design freedoms provide new potentials for the design of technical parts. To make these benefits accessible to different user groups, design rules for Additive Manufacturing were developed within the project "Direct Manufacturing Design Rules". Therefore a process independent method was defined first. Next, design rules were developed for Laser Sintering, Laser Melting and Fused Deposition Modeling. The results were summarized in a design rule catalog and support a suitable design for Additive Manufacturing. © 2013 CIRP.

Kanagarajah P.,University of Paderborn | Brenne F.,University of Paderborn | Brenne F.,Direct Manufacturing Research Center | Niendorf T.,University of Paderborn | And 2 more authors.
Materials Science and Engineering A | Year: 2013

Nickel-based superalloys, such as Inconel 939, are a long-established construction material for high-temperature applications and profound knowledge of the mechanical properties for this alloy produced by conventional techniques exists. However, many applications demand for highly complex geometries, e.g. in order to optimize the cooling capability of thermally loaded parts. Thus, additive manufacturing (AM) techniques have recently attracted substantial interest as they provide for an increased freedom of design. However, the microstructural features after AM processing are different from those after conventional processing. Thus, further research is vital for understanding the microstructure-processing relationship and its impact on the resulting mechanical properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate Inconel 939 processed by selective laser melting (SLM) and to reveal the differences to the conventional cast alloy. Thorough examinations were conducted using electron backscatter diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, optical microscopy and mechanical testing.It is demonstrated that the microstructure of the SLM-material is highly influenced by the heat flux during layer-wise manufacturing and consequently anisotropic microstructural features prevail. An epitaxial grain growth accounts for strong bonding between the single layers resulting in good mechanical properties already in the as-built condition. A heat treatment following SLM leads to microstructural features different to those obtained after the same heat treatment of the cast alloy. Still, the mechanical performance of the latter is met underlining the potential of this technique for producing complex parts for high temperature applications. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Niendorf T.,University of Paderborn | Brenne F.,University of Paderborn | Brenne F.,Direct Manufacturing Research Center
Materials Characterization | Year: 2013

Austenitic high-manganese steel showing twinning-induced plasticity has been processed by selective laser melting. In the as-built condition without any post-processing the steel shows excellent mechanical properties featuring high strength, good ductility and extraordinary strain hardening. Microstructural analyses revealed a fully austenitic microstructure upon processing exhibiting elongated grains and a pronounced texture. Deformation twins are observed upon tensile testing, proving that additive manufacturing is well suited for processing of high-manganese steels. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Gorny B.,University of Paderborn | Niendorf T.,University of Paderborn | Lackmann J.,University of Paderborn | Thoene M.,University of Paderborn | And 4 more authors.
Materials Science and Engineering A | Year: 2011

Cellular materials are promising candidates for load adapted light-weight structures. Direct manufacturing (DM) tools are effective methods to produce non-stochastic structures. Many DM studies currently focus on optimization of the geometric nature of the structures obtained. The literature available so far reports on the mechanical properties but local deformation mechanisms are not taken into account. In order to fill this gap, the current study addresses the deformation behavior of a lattice structure produced by selective laser melting (SLM) on the local scale by means of a comprehensive experimental in situ approach, including electron backscatter diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and digital image correlation. SLM-processed as well as heat treated lattice structures made from TiAl6V4 alloy were employed for mechanical testing. It is demonstrated that the current approach provides means to understand the microstructure-mechanical property-local deformation relationship to allow for optimization of load adapted lattice structures. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Leuders S.,Direct Manufacturing Research Center | Leuders S.,University of Paderborn | Lieneke T.,University of Paderborn | Lammers S.,University of Paderborn | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Materials Research | Year: 2014

The selective-laser-melting (SLM) technique is an outstanding new production technology that allows for time-efficient fabrication of highly complex components from various metals. SLM processing leads to the evolution of numerous microstructural features strongly affecting the mechanical properties. For enabling application in envisaged fields the development of a robust production process for components subjected to different loadings is crucially needed. With regard to the behavior of SLM components subjected to cyclic loadings, the damage evolution can be significantly different depending on the raw material that is used, which is, in this case, highly ductile austenitic stainless steel 316L and high-strength titanium alloy TiAl6V4. By means of a thorough set of experiments, including postprocessing, mechanical testing focusing on high-cycle fatigue and microstructure analyses, it could be shown that the behavior of TiAl6V4 under cyclic loading is dominated by the process-induced pores. The fatigue behavior of 316L, in contrast, is strongly affected by its monotonic strength. Copyright © 2014 Materials Research Society.

Leuders S.,Direct Manufacturing Research Center | Leuders S.,University of Paderborn | Thone M.,Direct Manufacturing Research Center | Thone M.,University of Paderborn | And 9 more authors.
International Journal of Fatigue | Year: 2013

Direct manufacturing (DM), also referred to as additive manufacturing or additive layer manufacturing, has recently gained a lot of interest due to the feasibility of producing light-weight metallic components directly from design data. Selective laser melting is a very promising DM technique for providing near net shape components with relative high surface quality and bulk density. Still, process induced imperfections, i.e. micron sized pores and residual stresses upon processing, need to be considered for future application, e.g. in the aerospace and biomedical sectors. Moreover, fatigue loading is a critical scenario for such components and needs to be investigated thoroughly. Consequently, the current study aims at establishing sound microstructure- defect-property relationships under cyclic loading for a TiAl6V4 alloy processed by selective laser melting. Employing mechanical testing, hot isostatic pressing, electron microscopy and computer tomography it is shown that the micron sized pores mainly affect fatigue strength, while residual stresses have a strong impact on fatigue crack growth. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Riemer A.,Direct Manufacturing Research Center | Riemer A.,University of Paderborn | Leuders S.,Direct Manufacturing Research Center | Leuders S.,University of Paderborn | And 7 more authors.
Engineering Fracture Mechanics | Year: 2014

Direct manufacturing techniques such as selective laser melting (SLM) enable material efficient production of individual and complex components in a short period of time. But often these components suffer from process induced imperfections, primarily micro-pores and high residual stresses. Under fatigue loading these two kinds of inherent weaknesses lead to premature failure and consequently fairly low performance in many alloys processed by SLM. The fatigue performance of stainless steel 316L has been investigated. Thorough microstructural analyses were carried out using electronoptical techniques and X-ray diffraction in order to shed light on the process-microstructure-property relationships for this alloy. Fatigue property analyses have not been carried out in such depth so far. The results obtained clearly show that 316L is a promising candidate for cyclically loaded parts manufactured by SLM. Primarily attributed to the high ductility directly following SLM processing, the 316L stainless steel shows fatigue properties similar to conventionally processed material in its as-built condition. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Brenne F.,University of Paderborn | Brenne F.,Direct Manufacturing Research Center | Niendorf T.,University of Paderborn | Maier H.J.,University of Paderborn | Maier H.J.,Direct Manufacturing Research Center
Journal of Materials Processing Technology | Year: 2013

In order to meet the demand for optimized light-weight parts, the development of load adapted structures has begun to play a key role in today's research. Promising candidates are complex cellular structures, which can be adapted to the loading conditions by use of Additive Manufacturing techniques. The current study addresses the mechanical behavior of open cellular structures produced by Selective Laser Melting. Samples of Ti-6Al-4V were processed, heat-treated and tested under monotonic and cyclic loading applying both uniaxial and bending loads. To reveal microstructure - mechanical property - relationships an in situ approach using electron back scatter diffraction and digital image correlation was applied. The results clarify the impact of a post-SLM heat treatment on the mechanical performance of cellular structures made from Ti-6Al-4V. Local strains determined by DIC reveal structure weaknesses already at low degrees of deformation and at an early stage of lifetime. The in situ approach helps in understanding the mechanical behavior and allows for local adaptation of the cell design in order to obtain improved load adapted structures. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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