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Garcia S.,Direccion Tecnica de Las Zonas Costeras | Araujo J.,Direccion Tecnica de Las Zonas Costeras | Reid J.,Direccion Tecnica de Las Zonas Costeras | Castillo A.,Direccion Tecnica de Las Zonas Costeras | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2011

The generic term that includes all protected areas in Venezuela, established under the Organic Law for Territorial Land Use Planning (1983), is 'Areas Under Special Administration Regime' (ABRAEs). The process of establishing Natural Parks and Natural Monuments in marine and coastal areas has lagged far behind and currently only 4.3% of the Coastal/Marine Zone is included in these categories. Despite the high overall coverage figure for ABRAEs, these have focused strongly on terrestrial areas: only 95 of the 391 ABRAEs are in coastal and marine areas and these cover 5,904,721 ha, 8.7% of the total area of Venezuela's ABRAEs. The main barriers are related to capacities rather than commitment. Funding limitations mean that there are insufficient numbers of staff available to work in management planning. It is a legal requirement for all ABRAEs to have management plans within two years of legal recognition. The baseline of management planning is significant but includes major gaps: at present, only 36.84% (35 out of 95) marine and coastal ABRAEs have PORUs. Some ABRAEs do not have enough spatial information. Fourteen (14) proposals to increase marine superficies to Protected Areas were proposed, covering 1.791.337,82 hectares. Forty two (42) new ABRAEs proposals were also developed, which will include 10.180.118,87 hectares. Twenty two (22) of these proposals will be marine areas. Therefore, the long-term solution to actual problems will depend on the existence of marine and coastal Protected Areas. These must be financially sustainable, effectively managed, and representative of all the national marine and coastal ecosystems.

Perez F.,Direccion Tecnica de Las Zonas Costeras | Pino A.,Direccion Tecnica de Las Zonas Costeras | Grilli M.,Direccion Tecnica de Las Zonas Costeras | Garcia M.,Direccion Tecnica de Las Zonas Costeras | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2011

The existing Policies oriented to the sustainable use of the sea and oceans comprise these spaces according to their importance to humanity. In Venezuela, the development of these Policies was based in the national and international legal frame, taking into account the guidelines and directives from the Law of Coastal Zones (2001). Through implementation of Integrated Coastal Zone Management of Venezuela at a state scale, particular realities have been evaluated. The Policies are based in a direct way with each one of these realities. The objectives of these Policies are directed to four main aspects: (1) To rectify environmental problems identified in the coastal zones; (2) To protect and restore the coastal zones; (3) To direct decision making actions; and (4) To offer a reference frame suitable to support the development of Coastal Zone Management Plans on different scales. These Policies represent the guides to implement and execute a dynamic process to strengthen the institutional capacity, the improvement in the environmental planning and the coordination of the competences within the integrated management of coastal zones. The Policies were discussed and agreed by the Work Committee's created on different governmental scales, integrated by stakeholders, planners of the area and communities in different organizational forms.

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