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Morel N.,Comision Nacional de Zoonosis | Morel N.,Institute Higiene | Lassabe G.,Institute Higiene | Elola S.,Comision Nacional de Zoonosis | And 5 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2013

Cystic echinococcosis is still a major concern in South America. While some regions show advances in the control of the disease, others have among the highest incidence in the world. To reverse this situation the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has launched a regional project on cystic echinococcosis control and surveillance. An early concern of the program was the lack of a standardized diagnostic tool to monitor infection in dogs, a key target of control programs. Under this premise, we have developed a new copro-ELISA test after extensive screening of a large panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and polyclonal sera, which performs with high standards of sensitivity (92.6%) and specificity (86.4%) as established by necropsy diagnosis of dogs. The key component of the test, MAbEg9 has a convenient IgG isotype and reacts with a periodate-resistant epitope found in high molecular weight components of the worm. Time-course analysis of experimentally infected dogs showed that even animals with a very low number of parasites could be detected as early as day 20 post infection. The test was formulated in a ready-to-use kit format with proven stability of each component for a minimum of 3 months at room temperature. This characteristic facilitates its standardized use and shipping to other laboratories, which was demonstrated by the identical results obtained by two different laboratories in Peru and our own laboratory when a large number of field samples were analyzed independently in a blind fashion. © 2013 Morel et al. Source


Calatayud M.,CSIC - Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Food Technology | Devesa V.,CSIC - Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Food Technology | Virseda J.R.,Direccion General de Salud Publica | Barbera R.,University of Valencia | And 2 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2012

This study evaluates Hg and Se concentrations and bioaccessibility (element solubilised after simulated gastrointestinal digestion) in 16 raw seafood species consumed in Spain. The concentrations varied greatly (Hg, 3.8-1621. ng/g wet weight, ww; Se, 84-1817. ng/g ww). Only one sample of swordfish exceeded the Hg limit permitted in Spain (1. mg/kg), and for this sample the Hg/Se molar ratio and Se Health Benefit Value food safety criteria also indicated the presence of a risk. Bioaccessibility of Hg (35-106%) and Se (17-125%) was very variable and the Hg/Se molar ratio in the bioaccessible fraction was less than one for all samples. Transport by Caco-2 cells, an intestinal epithelium model, was also evaluated from the swordfish bioaccessible fraction. Hg and Se transport from the food was less than 14%, and cell retention was much greater for Hg (49-69%) than Se (8-12%). © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Otero M.J.,Complejo Asistencial Universitario Of Salamanca | Moreno-Gomez A.M.,ISMP Espana | Agra Y.,Direccion General de Salud Publica
European Journal of Internal Medicine | Year: 2014

Background Patients with chronic diseases often receive multiple medications and are associated with increased vulnerability to medication errors. Identifying high-alert medications for them would help to prioritize the interventions with greatest impact for improving medication safety. The aim of this study was to develop a list of high-alert medications for patients with chronic illnesses (HAMC list) that would prove useful to the Spanish National Health Service strategies on chronicity.Methods The RAND/UCLA appropriateness method was used. Drug classes/drugs candidates to be included on the HAMC list were identified from a literature search in MedLine, bulletins issued by patient safety organizations, incidents recorded in Spanish incident reporting systems, and previous lists. Eighteen experts in patient/medication safety or in chronic diseases scored candidate drugs for appropriateness according to three criteria (evidence, benefit and feasibility of implementing safety practices). Additionally they rated their priority of inclusion on a Likert scale.Results The final HAMC list includes 14 drug classes (oral anticoagulants, narrow therapeutic range antiepileptics, antiplatelets - including aspirin -, antipsychotics, β-blockers, benzodiazepines and analogues, corticosteroids long-term use, oral cytostatics, oral hypoglycemic drugs, immunosuppressants, insulins, loop diuretics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and opioid analgesics), and 4 drugs or pairs of drugs (amiodarone/ dronedarone, digoxin, oral methotrexate and spironolactone/eplerenone).Conclusions An initial list of high-alert medications for patients with chronic diseases has been developed, which can be built into the medication management strategies for chronicity to guide the implementation of efficient safety strategies and to identify those patients at greater risk for preventable adverse drug events. © 2014 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Source


Salas D.,Direccion General de Salud Publica
Revista española de sanidad penitenciaria | Year: 2013

Cancer is one of the main health problems. It includes a set of diseases with multi-causal origins. The tumours with the greatest impact on the health of men are lung, prostate and colorectal cancers, while for women they are breast and colorectal tumours. The best strategies for preventing cancer are ones based on primary prevention and early diagnosis. It is estimated that about to 80-90% of cancers are preventable. As regards primary prevention, there is considerable evidence to suggest that not smoking, regular physical exercise and a diet rich in fruit and vegetables, along with the control of some environmental and occupational risk factors can reduce the incidence of cancer. The early diagnosis of breast, colorectal and cervical cancer is recommended for some groups of the population in a context of organised programs with adequate quality guarantees. Source


Ortiz de Lejarazu Leonardo R.,University of Valladolid | Tamames GoMez S.,Direccion General de Salud Publica
Pediatria de Atencion Primaria | Year: 2014

Approximately two out of 10 children get flu every year. Children are more susceptible to influenza infection contributing to spread the disease in the home and school-setting, by eliminating larger amount of virus during longer period than adults. The most common complications include otitis media, tracheobronchitis, laryngotracheitis, bronchiolitis and bronchitis, most commonly seen in naïve patients. The more severe complication is viral pneumonia, more frequent in infections by influenza A virus. Influenza causes health services burden, particularly in pediatric primary health care, having impact on mortality rates. In the United States during the 2010-11 epidemic there were 115 deaths in children, of whom only 23% were vaccinated. United States and Canada have implemented the recommendation on universal vaccination with particular emphasis on children, in Europe this occurs only in the UK. Currently different types of inactivated virus vaccines are marketed in Spain. Attenuated virus vaccines are used in the United States and Russia. Vaccines with live attenuated influenza virus have been more effective in children <4 years because that population has had less prior exposure to influenza than adults. Most inactivated influenza vaccines are made of complete or split virion. Recent research establishes the possibility of using adjuvanted vaccines in children. Also this research includes quadrivalent vaccines that protect against both lineages of B viruses that can circulate every year. Influenza vaccination of children is a medical necessity not properly covered in Spain. Seasonal epidemics have shown that influenza vaccination of children have a protective effect on other vulnerable groups. While scientific consensus for universal children vaccination is achieved, it is the responsibility of the pediatrician to strongly recommend influenza vaccination of children and adolescents with underlying diseases as well as their household contacts. © 2014, Rev Pediatr Aten Primaria. All right reserved. Source

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