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Avila J.,Direccion General de Epidemiologia | Tavera M.,UNICEF | Carrasco M.,Hospital Regional de Cusco
Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Publica | Year: 2015

Objectives. Describe the epidemiological characteristics of neonatal deaths in Peru. Materials and methods. Descriptive study based on notifications to the Perinatal and Neonatal National Epidemiological Surveillance Subsystem (PNNESS) made in 2011-2012. The capture-recapture method was used to calculate the registration of the notification and estimate the neonatal mortality rate (NMR) nationally and by regions. Responses were made to the questions: where, when, who and why the newborns died. Results. 6,748 neonatal deaths were reported to PNNESS, underreport 52.9%. A national NMR of 12.8 deaths/1,000 live births was estimated. 16% of deaths occurred at home and 74.2% of these were in the highlands region, predominantly in rural areas and poor districts. 30% died in the first 24 hours and 42% between 1 and 7 days of life. 60.6% were preterm infants and 39.4% were term infants. 37% had normal weight, 29.4% low weight, and 33.6% very low weight. Preventable neonatal mortality was 33%, being higher in urban and highland areas. 25.1% died of causes related with prematurity-immaturity; 23.5% by infections; 14.1% by asphyxiation and causes related to care during childbirth and 11% by lethal congenital malformation. Conclusions. Neonatal mortality in Peru is differentiated by setting; harms related to prematurity-immaturity dominated on the coast, while the highlands and jungle recorded more preventable neonatal mortality with a predominance of asphyxia and infections. © 2015, Instituto Nacional de Salud. All rights reserved.

Metcalf C.J.E.,Princeton University | Munayco C.V.,Direccion General de Epidemiologia | Chowell G.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Chowell G.,Arizona State University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the Royal Society Interface | Year: 2011

Rubella is generally a mild childhood disease, but infection during early pregnancy may cause spontaneous abortion or congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), which may entail a variety of birth defects. Consequently, understanding the age-structured dynamics of this infection has considerable public health value. Vaccination short of the threshold for local elimination of transmission will increase the average age of infection. Accordingly, the classic concern for this infection is the potential for vaccination to increase incidence in individuals of childbearing age. A neglected aspect of rubella dynamics is how age incidence patterns may be moulded by the spatial dynamics inherent to epidemic metapopulations. Here, we use a uniquely detailed dataset from Peru to explore the implications of this for the burden of CRS. Our results show that the risk of CRS may be particularly severe in small remote regions, a prediction at odds with expectations in the endemic situation, and with implications for the outcome of vaccination. This outcome results directly from the metapopulation context: specifically, extinction-re-colonization dynamics are crucial because they allow for significant leakage of susceptible individuals into the older age classes during inter-epidemic periods with the potential to increase CRS risk by as much as fivefold. © 2010 The Royal Society.

Tong S.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Zhu X.,Scripps Research Institute | Li Y.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Shi M.,University of Sydney | And 25 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2013

Aquatic birds harbor diverse influenza A viruses and are a major viral reservoir in nature. The recent discovery of influenza viruses of a new H17N10 subtype in Central American fruit bats suggests that other New World species may similarly carry divergent influenza viruses. Using consensus degenerate RT-PCR, we identified a novel influenza A virus, designated as H18N11, in a flat-faced fruit bat (Artibeus planirostris) from Peru. Serologic studies with the recombinant H18 protein indicated that several Peruvian bat species were infected by this virus. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that, in some gene segments, New World bats harbor more influenza virus genetic diversity than all other mammalian and avian species combined, indicative of a long-standing host-virus association. Structural and functional analyses of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase indicate that sialic acid is not a ligand for virus attachment nor a substrate for release, suggesting a unique mode of influenza A virus attachment and activation of membrane fusion for entry into host cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that bats constitute a potentially important and likely ancient reservoir for a diverse pool of influenza viruses.

Reyes Pablo A.E.,Subdireccion de Gineco Obstetricia | Sierra Romero M.C.,Hospital General Dr. Manuel Gea Gonzalez | Valdes Hernandez J.,Direccion General de Epidemiologia
Boletin Medico del Hospital Infantil de Mexico | Year: 2013

Background. Congenital malformations are a main cause of infant death, chronic illness and disability in several countries. The expected frequency is ~2-3% in live newborns and ~15-20% in stillbirths. In 2010 in Mexico, infant mortality ranked in second place with a rate of 336.3/100,000 births. In order to estimate prevalence and main causes of congenital malformations in live births and stillbirths, national base registries of newborns and stillbirths were evaluated for 2009-2010. Methods. Databases of neonatal live births and fetal deaths were combined. Results. From a total population of 4,123,531 certificates, 99.3% were live born and there were 0.7% fetal deaths. Congenital malformations were registered in 30,491 cases, 91.7% of live newborns and 8.3% of fetal deaths with a prevalence rate of congenital malformations of 73.9/10,000. Conclusions. The reported prevalence was lower than expected. It is necessary to enforce registry systems through system validation and training of personnel.

Bai Y.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Recuenco S.,CDC | Gilbert A.T.,CDC | Osikowicz L.M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2012

Bartonella infections were investigated in bats in the Amazon part of Peru. A total of 112 bats belonging to 19 species were surveyed. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 24.1% of the bats (27/112). Infection rates ranged from 0% to 100% per bat species. Phylogenetic analyses of gltA of the Bartonella isolates revealed 21 genetic variants clustering into 13 divergent phylogroups. Some Bartonella strains were shared by bats of multiple species, and bats of some species were infected with multiple Bartonella strains, showing no evident specific Bartonella sp.-bat relationships. Rarely found in other bat species, the Bartonella strains of phylogroups I and III discovered from the common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) were more specific to the host bat species, suggesting some level of host specificity. Copyright © 2012 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

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