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Martins H.M.L.,Ip Laboratorio Nacional Of Investigacao Veterinaria | Almeida I.F.M.,Direccao Geral de Veterinaria | Camacho C.R.L.,Ip Laboratorio Nacional Of Investigacao Veterinaria | Santos S.M.O.,Ip Laboratorio Nacional Of Investigacao Veterinaria | And 2 more authors.
Revista Iberoamericana de Micologia

Background: Fumonisin B1 (FB1), fumonisin B2 (FB2), and overall mycotoxins feed contamination may cause several effects on crops production and animal health. The contamination occurred predominantly in corn and corn-based foods and feeds. Aims: This survey intends to provide the occurrence of fumonisins in swine and equine mixed feeds in Portugal, making an overview from 2007 to 2010. Methods: A total of 363 samples were analyzed, 258 from swine feed and 105 from horse feed with HPLC method. The detection limit was 50. μg/kg for FB1 and 100. μg/kg for FB2. Results: The overall results were 13% of FB1 occurrence from 2007 to 2010. FB1 was detected in about 17.0% of swine feed samples, being more frequent in 2010 (32.9%). In this year (2010) levels ranged between 66.7 and 3815.5. μg/kg.FB2 occurred only in 2010 in swine feed (6 samples, ranging between 104.0 to 467.2. μg/kg) and in horse feed (1 sample). Conclusions: This represents an increase in occurrence through the analyzed years, but this may not be a threat to animal health, once the values were below the recommended guidance values from European Commission. . © 2011 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Source

Ramos P.,Portuguese Institute for the Sea and Atmosphere IPMA | Victor P.,Direccao Geral de Veterinaria | Branco S.,University of Evora
Journal of Fish Diseases

In this article, we describe spontaneous melanotic lesions in the skin of axillary seabream, Pagellus acarne (Risso), from a defined area of the Portuguese Coast, located in Cabo da Roca and Foz do Arelho. The lesions corresponded to the black pigmentation spots on the skin of the head, fins, lips and conjunctiva and, additionally, black nodules on the skin of the head and lips. In some specimens, the nodular formations in the head changed their anatomical conformation. Histologically, there were melanophores scattered along the basement membrane or forming aggregates in the dermis, infiltrating the subcutaneous tissue but not invading the adjacent muscle tissue. The aim of this study was to characterize the macroscopic and microscopic features of the pigmented lesions. These fish show sessile hyperpigmented lesions (spots) that correspond to proliferative lesions of melanophores in the dermis and nodular lesions that correspond to neoplastic lesions, melanophoromas. The melanophores in such lesions showed high concentration of melanin in the cytoplasm, moderate pleomorphism and compact distribution throughout all of the dermis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Almeida I.F.M.,Direccao Geral de Veterinaria | Guerra M.M.,Higher School of Tourism and Hospitality Studies, Estoril | Martins H.M.L.,Inrb Laboratorio Nacional Of Investigacao Veterinaria | Costa J.M.G.,Direccao Geral de Veterinaria | Bernardo F.M.A.,Polo Universitario da Ajuda
Mycotoxin Research

This paper presents 3 years of data (2009-2011) on the occurrence of two mycotoxins, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and zearalenone (ZEA), in samples of feedstuff for dairy cows (n = 963), ewes (n = 42), and goats (n = 131) produced in Portugal. AFB1 was found in 15 samples of cow feed (1.6 %), 3 samples of ewe feed (2.3 %) and in 2 samples of goat feed (4.8 %). All but two samples contained AFB1 at levels below the European Union maximum level (5 μg/kg). Nearly half (45 %) of the samples were contaminated with ZEA, but its levels were relatively low, at 5-136.9 μg/kg, well below the European Union guidance value (500 μg/kg). © 2013 Society for Mycotoxin Research and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Gomes-Neves E.,Abel Salazar Biomedical Sciences Institute | Cardoso C.S.,University of Porto | Araujo A.C.,Direccao Geral de Veterinaria | Correia da Costa J.M.,Insa National Health Institute Dr Ricardo Jorge
Food Control

Professional training for meat handlers is an European Community food law requirement in order to apply HACCP principles and achieve food safety goals. A self-administered questionnaire designed to assess " Knowledge" and " Practice" of public hygiene measures was completed by meat handlers (MH) (n = 159) in slaughterhouses in Portugal. A significant proportion of the group (72.7%) has had professional training in two different areas: Good Practice in Food Industry (12.03%) and Work Safety and Hygiene (22.8%); 37.9% of the respondents have had training in both areas. However 24.5% of the subjects have never had training. Meat handlers with professional training in Good Practice in Food Industry (GPFI) and in both areas (BT) have had the highest proportions of correct answers in Knowledge (66.92 ± 16.36 and 67.26 ± 21.05, respectively) and Practice questions (70.53 ± 17.47 and 68.67 ± 22.58, respectively).The results of this study point to the need to improve training, particularly in Good Practice in Food Industry, thus enabling meat handlers to achieve more correct answers in Knowledge and Practice. The development of evaluation criteria for the effectiveness of professional training is crucial to protect Public Health. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Martins H.M.,Ip Laboratorio Nacional Of Investigacao Veterinaria | Almeida I.,Direccao Geral de Veterinaria | Camacho C.,Ip Laboratorio Nacional Of Investigacao Veterinaria | Costa J.M.,Direccao Geral de Veterinaria | Bernardo F.,Polo Universitario da Ajuda
Mycotoxin Research

Results of a 2-year (2009-2010) survey on the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in swine feed and in feed for laying hens in Portugal are reported. A total of 664 samples (478 swine feed, 186 feed for laying hens) were analyzed by a HPLC method using fluorescence detection with 2 μg kg-1 as detection limit. In swine feed, 31 samples (6.49%) were positive for OTA. In feed for laying hens, 12 samples (6.45%) were OTA-positive. The average levels of contamination were low, with median values of positive samples at 3-4 μg kg-1 in both years and both commodities, although a few samples contained exceptionally high levels (maximum 130 μg kg-1). Only the maximum level sample (swine feed) contained OTA at a concentration exceeding the European Commission guidance value. The remaining OTA concentrations found in feed samples were much lower than the guidance values. © 2012 Society for Mycotoxin Research and Springer. Source

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