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Patent
Dirac Solutions Inc. | Date: 2015-08-06

A smart passive RFID reader includes an RFID reader module, a microcontroller providing a means for increasing the probability of detecting correct passive RFID tags and decreasing the probability of detecting incorrect passive RFID tags, and antennas connected to the RFID reader module, wherein adjacent antennas have orthogonal polarization and the antennas each have a pivoting axis, whereby rotating the antennas about their pivoting axes causes a change in the overlap of the antenna beam radiation patterns and thereby provides a means for adaptive beamforming in order to improve tag reading.


Grant
Agency: National Science Foundation | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 147.67K | Year: 2012

This Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Phase I project seeks to develop secure/covert short-range wireless personal area communication networks by addressing the critical technical challenges of RF communications in harsh environments. The key new contributions in this proposed work include advanced techniques in the following areas: RF channel equalization, multi-pulse modulation for covertness and enhanced data security at the physical layer, adaptive noise and interference cancellation, multiple-input multiple-output antennas for capacity maximization, and wideband antenna design techniques for overcoming severe signal attenuation or distortions. Success in Phase I will lead to development of a powerful and flexible Software Defined Radio solution for covert communications with exceptionally high data security and operating in harsh propagation environments for distances up to at least 100 m. Proposed techniques are virtually certain to overcome the main obstacles that have prevented previous traditional communications systems, including the ultra-wideband ones, from succeeding in an array of commercial and government applications such as first-responder communications, communications in harsh environments, and related areas. The broader impact/commercial potential of this project is not only significant for defense and related government applications, but may also enable numerous commercial opportunities. On the government and military market fronts, there are numerous Department of Defense and intelligence community needs that can be better addressed by the novel communications system approach proposed. These include shipboard communications systems, urban rescue missions, some subset of tactical communications in harsh environments, intelligence field missions requiring stealthy communications in all environments (including urban settings), and many others. Beyond the clear national security payoffs, broader societal payoffs could include personal security, police and fire rescues, and possibly other less obvious applications involving short-range communications and personal area networks. It is expected that these advances will enable successful communications systems in many areas where traditional systems fail, and that the funding of this project will facilitate a much broader set of high-impact, dual-use applications. The proposed new communication systems embody unique features, modulation schemes, and other technical methods which will expand the understanding and applicability of these novel approaches to difficult communication environments.


Dyall K.G.,Dirac Solutions Inc.
Journal of Chemical Physics | Year: 2013

A spectral representation of the self-energy based on hydrogenic atomic data is examined for its usefulness to evaluate the self-energy of many-electron atoms, and thus its potential for molecular calculations. Use of the limited hydrogenic data with a diagonal projection overestimates the valence self-energy by an order of magnitude. The same diagonal projection for the vacuum polarization produces a similar overestimate, but a full projection produces values that are within a factor of 2 of the exact value, as does a density-fitting procedure. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.


Relativistic basis sets of double-zeta, triple-zeta, and quadruple-zeta quality have been optimized for the 7p elements at the Dirac-Coulomb self-consistent field level of theory with a Gaussian nuclear charge distribution. For all of these sets, valence and outer-core correlating functions have been optimized in multireference CI calculations on the valence p n states. Diffuse functions are also provided. Prescriptions are given for constructing contracted basis sets, based on MRCI calculations for correlation of the atoms. The basis sets are applied to a range of atomic and molecular properties, to provide information on how to use the basis sets. Tests of the basis sets with an explicit representation of the 8s showed that the 8s is not needed. The basis sets are available as an internet archive and from the Dirac program web site, http://dirac. chem. sdu. dk. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


Dyall K.G.,Dirac Solutions Inc.
Theoretical Chemistry Accounts | Year: 2012

Gaussian functions for correlation of all core shells of elements from Z = 31 to Z = 118 have been optimized in relativistic singles and doubles CI calculations, performed on the shell of highest angular momentum for each principal quantum number. The SCF functions were derived from the double-zeta, triple-zeta, and quadruple-zeta basis sets previously optimized by the author. Only those Gaussian functions that are not represented in the SCF basis sets were optimized. The functions are available from the Dirac program web site, http://dirac. chem. sdu. dk. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


Dyall K.G.,Dirac Solutions Inc.
Chemical Physics | Year: 2012

The kinetic balance criterion used in current relativistic basis set codes is satisfied by the electron solutions of the Dirac equation, but not the positron solutions. A proposal for applying kinetic balance to both sets of solutions is presented. The method is applied along with "normal" kinetic balance to one-electron systems, to investigate its possible relation to prolapse, and to the positron affinity of F -, to investigate the kinetic energy deficiency for positron solutions. The new method reduces but does not eliminate prolapse for energy-optimized basis sets, and provides faster and smoother convergence with basis set size for the positron affinity. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2016

There is strong need to develop new robust RF communication systems to support wireless communications for sensor data and instrumentation control in harsh environments. The nuclear industry has many examples of such environments, including geological repositories and facilities such as nuclear power plants. High-quality reliable wireless communications between operators and automated control systems are critical in these facilities, as wireless sensors become more and more prevalent in these operations. However, conventional wireless communications systems based on narrowband and spread spectrum signaling face significant challenges in such environments. This project develops novel ultra-wideband (UWB) based systems to overcome these problems, with security features embedded in the sensor/communications systems. How this project addresses the problem – Dirac Solutions Inc., in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, has developed highly reliable UWB communications systems that have proven to have excellent performance in several harsh environments including ships and tunnels. These systems use novel modulation techniques for short pulse UWB communications. The communication units can be integrated with sensors and produced inexpensively in large quantities. In this SBIR project, the utility of this new technology for applications in the nuclear power and related industries will be assessed, optimized, tested, and widely deployed. In Phase I, we will focus on adding security features to the UWB communications, including encryption and authentication, and investigate UWB powering methods for the sensors. The Phase II SBIR will focus on prototype development, testing and deployment of hardware communications and sensor systems that use these new methods. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits – These UWB communications systems can be adapted for numerous applications such as in tunnels and nuclear power facilities for voice, data, and nstrumentation control. Government applications beyond those mentioned above include military and defense, exfiltration of data in difficult environments, first responder emergency communications systems, and many others. Key Words – Ultra-wideband communications, signal modulation, harsh RF environments


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 147.67K | Year: 2012

This Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Phase I project seeks to develop secure/covert short-range wireless personal area communication networks by addressing the critical technical challenges of RF communications in harsh environments. The key new contributions in this proposed work include advanced techniques in the following areas: RF channel equalization, multi-pulse modulation for covertness and enhanced data security at the physical layer, adaptive noise and interference cancellation, multiple-input multiple-output antennas for capacity maximization, and wideband antenna design techniques for overcoming severe signal attenuation or distortions. Success in Phase I will lead to development of a powerful and flexible Software Defined Radio solution for covert communications with exceptionally high data security and operating in harsh propagation environments for distances up to at least 100 m. Proposed techniques are virtually certain to overcome the main obstacles that have prevented previous traditional communications systems, including the ultra-wideband ones, from succeeding in an array of commercial and government applications such as first-responder communications, communications in harsh environments, and related areas.


The broader impact/commercial potential of this project is not only significant for defense and related government applications, but may also enable numerous commercial opportunities. On the government and military market fronts, there are numerous Department of Defense and intelligence community needs that can be better addressed by the novel communications system approach proposed. These include shipboard communications systems, urban rescue missions, some subset of tactical communications in harsh environments, intelligence field missions requiring stealthy communications in all environments (including urban settings), and many others. Beyond the clear national security payoffs, broader societal payoffs could include personal security, police and fire rescues, and possibly other less obvious applications involving short-range communications and personal area networks. It is expected that these advances will enable successful communications systems in many areas where traditional systems fail, and that the funding of this project will facilitate a much broader set of high-impact, dual-use applications. The proposed new communication systems embody unique features, modulation schemes, and other technical methods which will expand the understanding and applicability of these novel approaches to difficult communication environments.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 138.49K | Year: 2011

There are numerous applications where radio-frequency (RFID) tags can play a crucial role in national security and broader applications. In the DOE, for example, RFID tags can assist in safeguarding nuclear materials to prevent proliferation. While some of the key technical challenges (such as performance of tags on metal, communication in harsh environments, radiation hardening, long-range passive RF tags, etc.) have been recently addressed and there have been key innovations at the DoE/NNSA National Laboratories and other commercial entities, important security needs to be incorporated onto these sensors in order to develop secure and reliable end-to-end monitoring systems that meet the strict and peculiar requirements of the DOE/NNSA Safeguards Programs. The overall objective of the proposed work is to develop end-to-end RF tagging/sensor systems that meet ALL important technical requirements of RF tags for safeguard applications. There are two types of technical requirements for Safeguard applications: (1) the environmental requirements, such as tags that are functional on metals; and (2) the security requirements, such as tags that communicate via data authentication. In Phase I we will focus on systems analysis, engineering and design for security and safeguards. The Phase II project will do functional end-to-end (software and hardware) prototype development and with required security features. Phase III will focus on manufacturing and deployment for use of the system by national and international agencies in nuclear non-proliferation. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: The primary payoff of this project, if funded through Phase II and beyond, is the development of improved secure RFID tags for deployment in applications involving the securing of special materials. Besides Safeguards programs in nonproliferation, the use of RF tags in tracking personnel and assets is of interest to DOE, DOD, DHS, and DOT programs. Multiple programs from various government agencies are expected to become users of the product of this project. In addition, the secure use of RFIDs for high-value items (e.g. jewelry, materials, pets, etc.) is a problem of significant interest in the commercial world and Dirac Solutions intends to pursue several of these.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 999.63K | Year: 2012

There are numerous applications where radio-frequency (RFID) tags can play a crucial role in national security and broader applications, including the safeguarding of nuclear materials to prevent proliferation. While some of the key technical challenges (such as performance of tags on metal, communication in harsh environments, radiation hardening, long-range passive RF tags, etc.) have been recently addressed and there have been key innovations at the DOE/NNSA National Laboratories and other commercial entities, important security needs to be incorporated onto these sensors in order to develop secure and reliable end-to-end monitoring systems that meet the strict and peculiar requirements of the DOE/NNSA Safeguards Programs. The overall objective of the proposed work is to develop end-to-end RF tagging/sensor systems that meet ALL important technical requirements of RF tags for safeguard applications. There are two major types of technical requirements for safeguard applications: (1) the environmental requirements, such as tags that are functional on metals; and (2) the security requirements, such as tags that communicate via data authentication. A RFID software simulator was developed and exercised for examination of parameters of interest, including tag-reader range, power levels, and authentication delay impacts. Authentication software and hardware were developed and successfully integrated into a national laboratorys existing UHF RFID tags for safeguarding nuclear materials. The R & amp;D prototype was successfully fielded and demonstrated to the IAEA in Austria with the national laboratory partner. The R & amp;D prototype will be significantly improved into a commercial RFID prototype with strong authentication and encryption. Broader tag performance issues will be improved, including tamper-proofing, enhanced range, packaging, and robustness for user applications. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: The primary payoff of this project, if funded through Phase II and beyond, is the development of improved secure RFID tags for deployment in applications involving the securing of special materials. Besides Safeguards programs in nonproliferation, the use of RF tags in tracking personnel and assets is of interest to DOE, DOD, DHS, and DOT programs. Multiple programs from various government agencies are expected to become users of the product of this project. In addition, the secure use of RFIDs for high-value items (e.g. jewelry, materials, pets, etc.) is a problem of significant interest in the commercial world and these will be pursued.

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